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submitted by George Poulos on 21.06.2010

George (Proto)Psaltis, (Barraba) - recounts lives of 1930's Bingara identities: George Psaltis, Emanuel Aroney, & Peter Feros.

As indicated by a previous entry (7 entries prior - question mark) there is little knowledge of, and lack of photographs for George Psaltis, Emanuel Aroney, & Peter Feros.
These men were prominent local businessmen in Bingara, in NSW, during the 1930's, and were involved with the Roxy Theatre in Bingara.

I decided to approach George (Proto)Psaltis, originally of Barraba, and subsequently of Mosman, to see whether he had any knowledge of the men, which may lead their descendants to posting further information about them to kythera-family.

George celebrated his ninetieth birthday last week, with a wonderful party at his son Cosmas', Centennial Hotel in Woolhrara, Sydney. The brief thumbnail life-histories of Psaltis, Aroney and Feros derive from him.

George Protopsaltis

Parachoukli - Tessi

Born, 1914, Mitata, Kythera.

[There is an interesting photograph posted to kythera-family at Photography Island, subsection, Vintage Portraits, by Arthur Sklavos, (11.10.2004) of 6 young boys leaving Kythera in 1927, which includes a "George C Protopsaltis" which might be a photograph of my informant as a young man(?)]

Anitsa Protopsaltis has also posted vintage photographs of a number of Protopsalti - including those with parachouklia - Motzoro, Tsagorminas, and Karpani.
And Erinie Bourdaniotis has posted an extensive Protopsalti family tree.

George Psaltis, had a shop in Barraba from 1938-1947. Bingara is situated in the far North West of the State of New South Wales, and is ".. 37 miles north of Barraba. In those days you caught the train to Barraba - and then took a bus up to Binagara".
"I knew all these men well."
[George also believes he has photographs of the men, and their shops. "If I could only see them."]

In 1947 George moved to Sydney, where he established two milk bars - the latter being the "famous" milkbar at Spit Junction, in Sydney, which he owned and operated for many years.

Bingara Kytherians, 1930's.

George (Proto)Psaltis


Born in Friligianika, Kythera.(c1900 - c1970s).

Parachoukli - Katsavias

He built a number of buildings in Bingara. The impact of building the Roxy Theatre on the town of Bingara has been chronciled by Kevin Cork in his Ph.D Thesis. [Search internally, under Cork, or Bingara.]
In 1938 he moved to Sydney.
He opened a restaurant at Kings X called the Q Cafe - Q for "quickness", and "quality" and a number of other "q" words.
Later he opened a Milk Bar in Newtown.
Eventually he went to Adelaide, where he died, a fairly poor man.
He never married - which might explain why his life history has been so difficult to uncover.

Emanuel Aroney,

Born, Arioniathika(?), (c1890 - 1972);

Manuel Aroney was in fact a Theodoropoulos. [Kytherians will know that persons deriving from Arioniathika, when they arrived in Australia, tended to adopt the name Aroney - irrespective of their Kytherian/Greek surname].

He too moved to Sydney from Bingara, where he ran the Hollywood Cafe, at Liverpool Street, and later the Paris Cafe, in Pitt Street, near the (then)Pitt Street Cinemas.

He had three children,
Dr James Aroney, who married Lisa(?), from Patra.
Spiros, who married Manuel Malanos's daughter, Maria,
and Peter, who married Adonia Manolaras', sister of Dr Manolaras(?), from Parramata.
Son, Peter later ran the newsagency in Pitt Street, near the Liverpool St corner.

Peter (Panayiotis) Feros,

born in Mitata, Kythera, c1890.

Died, 19.12.1954.

Feros had the puraksino parachoukli Katsehamos. ("Sitting down (person").

Peter had one son John, who entered the Army, and died in his 50's.
Two daughters, Katina, in Linfield, since deceased, and
Maria, of Roseville, still alive (2004).

About 1938-9 - Peter went to a small town near Horsham, in Victoria.
Later he moved to Junee with his son-in-law, where he later died(?).



Note: The building of the Roxy was not a financial success. Circumstances surrounding its construction also revealed a deep-seated racism against southern Europeans. Both aspects have been explored by Kevin Cork.

Section from Background to

Chapter 3: Discriminated Against and Forced to Discriminate

Bingara - a case study


In the mid-1930s, in the north-western town of Bingara, a Greek partnership, Peters and Co (ie George Psaltis, Peter Feros and Emanuel Aroney) embarked on an ambitious construction project involving new cafe, shops and a modern cinema at the south-west corner of Cunningham and Maitland Streets. According to the local newspaper, "When completed it will have an equal frontage to both streets, a symmetrical and well-balanced building, a splendid addition to the town's business houses." Peters and Co intended to construct for their own use a shop and large restaurant (22 feet by 85 feet), with seating for 140 diners, a kitchen (14 feet by 26 feet), two cellars, a machinery room (14 feet by 14 feet) where ice would be made and electricity for the new buildings would be generated, and a modern cinema. Above the shop and restaurant would be living quarters. Two additional shops would be built and made available for lease.

What should have been a straightforward enterprise turned into a financial disaster tainted with overtones of discrimination. There were already two cinemas operating in the town, the Old Bingara Pictures and the Regent Pictures. The former was an old galvanised iron shed and the latter was under the control of a local businessman (who was a returned soldier and an alderman) and he used the Soldiers' Memorial Hall. When, in 1934, he learned that a new cinema was being mooted, he set about trying to undermine the project. Firstly, a letter to his parliamentary representative, who was also an old acquaintance.
Sometime ago I wrote you in connection with the Greek invasion into our little burg, & the position now is becoming more acute, inasmuch as they have issued an ultimatum that any of us who are not prepared to bring our businesses up to their end of the town, opposition businesses will be started by them.

...I have no intention of allowing the Greeks to put it over me in this way, so I am endeavouring to get in ahead of them... & I want you...to find out from the Chief Secretary's Department if the Greeks have yet submitted plans to them for a new theatre, & if so have they been passed by that department'

I shall be submitting plans myself during the next few weeks, & I am hoping those of the Greeks will be held up until I can get a start.

The Chief Secretary replied on behalf of the parliamentarian, stating that "...it is not the practice of the Department to disclose particulars of the kind." Having lost that round, the businessman pushed on quickly with the building of his own theatre (the Regent) which opened in June 1935. Unable to withstand the competition from the new Regent, the Old Bingara Pictures turned-up its toes and died. One might be forgiven if one were to assume that the new theatre would also put an end to the Greek proposal. It did not and Peters and Co pressed on. In early 1936, as the Greeks' Roxy was nearing completion, xenophobia flared again.
As you are aware we are having our own little war with Greece in Bingara, & the latest development is that they want us to run our P.&.A. Asso. Ball in their new theatre, & the Committee have decided to stick to the Soldiers' Memorial Hall. Following on this decision they propose to run a stunt in their theatre in opposition to the Ball.

The Greek theatre is not complete, & is certainly not built to the plans and specifications as submitted...

If the inspection is to be done by our local police I would like you to see that this is carried out in such a way that they are compelled to comply with all regulations, but it would be more satisfactory all round if you could see your way to send your own inspector along.

Trusting you will not mind my writing you personally on this matter, for, as you know the maintenance of our Memorial Hall is a vital matter with our league here, & with kind regards...

Round Two also went to the Greeks when the Chief Secretary replied.
...the local Police were instructed on the 11th March to inform the proprietors that the premises may be opened for public entertainment pending the issue of the required licence, provided the building has been constructed in accordance...

You will, therefore, see that the question whether the premises may be used for public entertainment will depend entirely on the fact of the Police being satisfied in regard to the building...

[re the alternate function] ...I am unable to take any action in the matter if the building is in order and the conditions complied with.

The Roxy (sub-titled "Theatre Moderne") opened on Saturday, 28 March 1936, with the owners acknowledging "the wonderful support of the People of Bingara and District whose encouragement enabled us to open this New Modern Building" and thanking "the various Artisans, Tradesmen and Loyal Workers whose efforts and faithful service made the Roxy possible." Then came blatantly racist newspaper advertising by the opposition. From March, advertisements proclaimed the Regent to be "100 per cent Australian, including Ownership, Employees, Talkie Equipment." This continued until the middle of November, by which time the Roxy management was in financial difficulties, having over-extended itself financially on the building project. The Regent Theatre owner was elected Mayor in December 1936, having served in this capacity in 1928 and 1929. According to the report of the opening of the Regent in 1935, he had come to the town "...as a youth, and during his residence had associated himself with every movement for the benefit of the town. He had also served in the Great War...The Mayor (Ald. C Doherty) also paid a high tribute to Mr Peacocke's good citizenship and progressive spirit..."

Within a short time, Peters and Co's financial difficulties led to the mortgagee taking control of the buildings. Psaltis and Feros moved on and Aroney, having to support his mother and two brothers (one going to medical school) in Greece, moved operations to a new cafe in Bingara. The cafe, opposite the Regent Theatre, was called The Regent Cafe and had been built by the Regent's owner".

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 04.11.2004

Athenium Theatre, Junee. Attractive interior, side wall near stage.

The very attractive interior of the Athenium Theatre, originally owned and operated by Kytherian George Laurantus.

Attractive arch on side wall near the front stage.

See numerous other entries in this section of kythera-family for more comprehensive history.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 04.11.2004

Athenium Junee, decorative interior with seating.

The very attractive interior of the Athenium Theatre, originally owned and operated by Kytherian George Laurantus.

See numerous other entries in this section of kythera-family for more comprehensive history.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 04.11.2004

Athenium Junee - Heritage listed.

Saved . . . Ken Dwyer, Mike Heffernan and planning manager James Davies rallied to defence of the historic cinema in Junee. Photo: Stephen Beazley

Not curtains yet for old cinema

By Geraldine O'Brien

Heritage Writer

Sydney Morning Herald

June 3 2003


The dwindling number of country cinemas has been spared another loss with the NSW Government's decision to put an interim heritage order on Junee's historic Athenium Theatre.

Junee Shire Council had wanted to demolish the 1928 building, which had been restored in the late 1990s by local prisoners, saying the site was needed for a new medical centre.

But a group of local residents, including XPT train driver Mark Mulhearn and newsagent Ken Dwyer, rallied to its defence.

The richly decorated blue and gold cinema opened in October 1929. It was designed by Kaberry and Chard , responsible also for the Tumut Montreal and the Leeton Roxy, as well as Glebe's Valhalla. The Athenium was still relatively intact, having been used most recently for discos and school functions.

"The council decided we needed to demolish it for a medical centre, and I'm 110 per cent behind that," Mr Dwyer said. "But there are any number of other sites available. We should be enlivening the town by keeping our heritage."

Mr Mulhearn said the building was part of a heritage conservation area identified in the council's own local environment plan, and "the LEP is the law, not some book of helpful hints".

The group prepared a letter of objection which was sent in by 240 of the town's 4000 residents. Mr Mulhearn said: "We believe from a councillor that about two-thirds objected to their proposal with only about one third in favour."

But the issue did split the community, Mr Dwyer said, "because people were under the impression that if they didn't knock it down they wouldn't get the medical centre.

"It's a real shame because we're only a small town and we shouldn't be split over this. I believe our future's in our old buildings and I believe if we can get funding this will become the best looking building in its precinct."

The National Trust - which campaigns energetically for the preservation of country cinemas - wrote to the council saying such buildings can be vital in maintaining the social fabric of country towns.

Because the Athenium is one of the oldest surviving cinemas and also within the trust's Junee urban conservation area, it won the trust's support for the interim order.

In announcing the order, the assistant Minister for Infrastructure and Planning, Diane Beamer, said that in 1951 there had been 378 picture theatres in regional NSW of which "only a handful" remained unaltered and "fewer still operate as as cinemas".


Follow ups

Jadda Centre: Friends of the Athenium. 4. SHR - Notice of intention to list (Heritage Council, NSW)...

www.heritage.nsw.gov.au/docs/shragendanov2003.pdf

Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources, NSW Government - Media Releases

http://dipnr.nsw.gov.au/mediarel/mn20030821_2253.html


DIANE BEAMER, NSW Planning Minister, Release, re: The Jadda Centre, formerly known as the Athenium and Broadway Theatre

www.heritage.nsw.gov.au/docs/mediareleases/jadda_minister.pdf

NSW Government Gazettal:

http://www.cms.dpws.nsw.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/ehqsgo7nyie4umngascyyrveyy4o52ls4onn4zxspqaevwtisht6ku2u4n4xxh27hzhctacnbctnnkc4btcaju4ppqa/No.+91+of+2003.PDF

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 04.11.2004

Athenium Theatre, Junee. National Trust Alert. Helping to preserve a Kytherian icon? The view from the interior.

Interior, the current Jadda Centre, formerly the Athenium, owned by George Laurantus. (See previous entries under Laurantus, and Cork, for details.)

From:

http://www.nsw.nationaltrust.org.au/juneealert.html

The National Trust of Australia (NSW)

TRUST ALERT

Former Junee Athenium (Broadway) Theatre


The emotional argument that retaining the former Junee Athenium would be at the expense of gaining a new medical facility is unforgivable. Both facilities are important to the town and one should not be at the expense of the other.


The National Trust Regional Cinemas Campaign

For many years the Trust has campaigned for the protection, conservation and viable use of historic cinemas in country towns and regional centres. A number of these cinemas have now been restored and brought back into productive use. They have become vital facilities helping to maintain the social fabric of country towns. They contribute in a meaningful way to the broader ‘health’ and ‘well-being’ of those towns. They provide a focus not only for film but broader community activities and entertainment.

But most importantly they ensure that younger people are not forced to travel to other more distant venues with all the concerns that this may entail not to mention the revenue lost to other towns and regional centres.

Most country towns no longer have an historic cinema. They don’t have this opportunity to revive film showings or provide a venue for public use. But in those towns that have such a facility local councils have often become deeply involved to the credit of all involved and the benefit of those towns. Local examples in southern New South Wales are the Leeton Roxy and Tumut Montreal Theatres.

Examples in northern New South Wales are the Dungog Theatre (Dungog Shire) and the Scone Civic (Scone Shire).

The Trust is urging Junee Council to reconsider its development proposal, to consider alternative sites for the proposed medical centre and to consider options for the restoration and recommissioning of this theatre along similar lines to the Tumut Montreal and Leeton Roxy Theatres.

Why is the Junee Athenium important?

The Junee Athenium is of State Heritage Significance due to its:
- early construction date (1928), being one of the oldest surviving cinemas in country New South Wales;
- design by the renowned and prolific cinema architectural firm Kaberry and Chard;
- status as one of the few surviving relatively intact examples of their work; and
- projection room and early technology.

The former Athenium (Broadway) Theatre also has significance at the local level contributing to the Broadway Street streetscape and is sited within the National Trust’s Classified ‘Junee Urban Conservation Area’ entered on the Trust Register in 1980.

How you can help?

You can help by talking with your friends and family and passing on the information in this Trust Alert.

Consider lodging a written objection to the demolition proposal with Junee Council and forwarding a copy to the National Trust and NSW Heritage Office (addresses below). Your contribution and the assistance of your friends and acquaintances could be crucial to the outcome.

JUNEE SHIRE COUNCIL

The General Manager
Junee Shire Council
PO Box 93
JUNEE NSW 2663


NSW HERITAGE COUNCIL

The Director
NSW Heritage Office
3 Marist Place,
PARRAMATTA NSW 2150
THE NATIONAL TRUST
OF AUSTRALIA (NSW)

The Executive Director
National Trust Centre
GPO Box 518
SYDNEY NSW 2001

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 04.11.2004

Athenium Theatre, Junee. National Trust Alert. Helping to preserve a Kytherian icon?

From:

http://www.nsw.nationaltrust.org.au/juneealert.html

The National Trust of Australia (NSW)

TRUST ALERT

Former Junee Athenium (Broadway) Theatre


The emotional argument that retaining the former Junee Athenium would be at the expense of gaining a new medical facility is unforgivable. Both facilities are important to the town and one should not be at the expense of the other.


The National Trust Regional Cinemas Campaign

For many years the Trust has campaigned for the protection, conservation and viable use of historic cinemas in country towns and regional centres. A number of these cinemas have now been restored and brought back into productive use. They have become vital facilities helping to maintain the social fabric of country towns. They contribute in a meaningful way to the broader ‘health’ and ‘well-being’ of those towns. They provide a focus not only for film but broader community activities and entertainment.

But most importantly they ensure that younger people are not forced to travel to other more distant venues with all the concerns that this may entail not to mention the revenue lost to other towns and regional centres.

Most country towns no longer have an historic cinema. They don’t have this opportunity to revive film showings or provide a venue for public use. But in those towns that have such a facility local councils have often become deeply involved to the credit of all involved and the benefit of those towns. Local examples in southern New South Wales are the Leeton Roxy and Tumut Montreal Theatres.

Examples in northern New South Wales are the Dungog Theatre (Dungog Shire) and the Scone Civic (Scone Shire).

The Trust is urging Junee Council to reconsider its development proposal, to consider alternative sites for the proposed medical centre and to consider options for the restoration and recommissioning of this theatre along similar lines to the Tumut Montreal and Leeton Roxy Theatres.

Why is the Junee Athenium important?

The Junee Athenium is of State Heritage Significance due to its:
- early construction date (1928), being one of the oldest surviving cinemas in country New South Wales;
- design by the renowned and prolific cinema architectural firm Kaberry and Chard;
- status as one of the few surviving relatively intact examples of their work; and
- projection room and early technology.

The former Athenium (Broadway) Theatre also has significance at the local level contributing to the Broadway Street streetscape and is sited within the National Trust’s Classified ‘Junee Urban Conservation Area’ entered on the Trust Register in 1980.

How you can help?

You can help by talking with your friends and family and passing on the information in this Trust Alert.

Consider lodging a written objection to the demolition proposal with Junee Council and forwarding a copy to the National Trust and NSW Heritage Office (addresses below). Your contribution and the assistance of your friends and acquaintances could be crucial to the outcome.

JUNEE SHIRE COUNCIL

The General Manager
Junee Shire Council
PO Box 93
JUNEE NSW 2663


NSW HERITAGE COUNCIL

The Director
NSW Heritage Office
3 Marist Place,
PARRAMATTA NSW 2150
THE NATIONAL TRUST
OF AUSTRALIA (NSW)

The Executive Director
National Trust Centre
GPO Box 518
SYDNEY NSW 2001

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 04.11.2004

Explanation of the Methodology behind research into Chapter 2 of KEVIN CORK's Ph.D thesis. Also an explanation of his motivation for undertaking the research.

Kevin Cork.



During the 1990's KEVIN CORK undertook extensive research into cinema's in Australia.

Tragically, he died before completing his work, but most of the chapters of his Ph.D Thesis, were completed.

His wife and children have kindly given permission for his work to be reproduced.

Most Australian's would be unaware of the degree to which Greeks, and particularly Kytherian Greeks dominated cinema ownership in Australia - especially in New South Wales.

This piece is an explanation of the methodology underpinning Chapter 2 of the thesis. Personal interaction with many Kytherian families is revealed.

The importance of the Hellenic and Kytherian contribution to Australian cinema ownership and history is clearly demonstrated in this methodological outline, as in all other chapters of the thesis.

It is difficult to know how to pass on to Kytherians the results of Kevin Cork's important research's.

In the end, I felt that the results should be passed on in the most extensive way - i.e. in full re-publication of Chapter's.

Eventually all Chapters will appear on the kythera-family web-site.

Other entries can be sourced by searching under "Cork" on the internal search engine.

See also, Kevin Cork, under People, subsection, High Achievers.

Entries for other members of the Cork family, Merle, Julie, and Stuart, have also been posted to kythera-family.



CHAPTER 2 - METHODOLOGY

"When an old person dies, a library burns to the ground."



In mid-1995, the writer was privileged to interview Emmanuel (Hector) Conomos, aged 94, who was involved with cinema at Walgett from 1927 to 1970. The interview had been arranged to further the writer's knowledge of cinema exhibition, a hobby of many years. Emmanuel Conomos was born on Kythera in 1901, came to Sydney in 1914, and moved to Walgett in 1919. From 1927 until 1970 (with the exception of two years in the late 1930s), he was involved with cinema exhibition in Walgett. His reminiscences and those of his wife, Elly (who arrived in Walgett in 1938), together with their son, George, set the writer on a quest to find similar Greeks. During the course of the interview several other Greek-Australian exhibitors were mentioned. Through the assistance of George Conomos, a number of Greek-Australians were found. It was then a matter of one person leasing to another.

One result of the interview was that the writer perused a copy of The Film Weekly Motion Picture Directory 1948/49 and started to compile a list of Greek exhibitors. By searching the same directory from 1937/38 to 1962/63 (the time when most country areas of New South Wales received television transmission for the first time), the list grew. What has been gathered and presented in this thesis owes much to the initial contact with Mr Conomos and his family.

Having ascertained those Greeks who were exhibiting films from the late 1930s to the early 1960s, the writer then sought those who existed prior to the commencement of The Film Weekly directory in 1936/37. While viewing newspapers to find more information about the Conomos' cinemas in Walgett, it was discovered that three other Greeks had operated cinemas at various times. It was thought that if this were the case in Walgett, similar situations may have occurred in other places. This was found to be true as more people were interviewed and newspapers and film trade magazines were consulted.

Below is a list of known New South Wales' Greek-Australians who were cinema exhibitors prior to the introduction of television in rural areas of the state (ie c1962/63). It is interesting to observe that, with few exceptions, their cinemas were in rural areas. Years of operation have not been listed below but are to be found in a later chapter. The list is as accurate as time and sources have allowed and is certainly indicative of the importance of Greek-Australians to cinema exhibition in this state. Included in the list are locations covered and the names of the cinemas in their charge. Some were freeholds, others were leaseholds and still others were on weekly rentals. The list contains many fine cinema buildings.

Andronicus, J and N J - East Moree Danceland Theatre and Open Air
Aroney, E, Feros, P and Psaltis, G - Bingara Roxy
Bylos, C - Wyalong West Rio and Open Air, Tivoli, Reo Gardens
Calligeros, P - Temora Star and Open Air, Crown, Strand
Comino Bros (Comino, A and Megalokonomos, A) - Wee Waa Star (1st), Star (2nd)
Comino, T - Bellingen Memorial
Conomos, T & V - Carinda Megalo Theatre
Conomos Bros (E, D and L) - Walgett School of Arts and Luxury Theatre
Conson, G - Leeton Globe and Open Air, Roxy, Roxy Garden Theatre; Yenda Regent; Griffith Lyceum, Rio (2nd)
Coroneo, A - Armidale Arcadia, Capitol; Glen Innes Grand and Roxy; Scone Civic; Rose Bay North Kings
Coroneo, S - Cessnock Strand (1st), Strand (2nd); Tamworth Strand
Coroneo, T - Scone Civic
Crones, A - Walgett American Electric Pictures (aka Walgett Picture Palace)
Fatseas, E - Condobolin Central/Renown, Aussie Open Air
Fatzeus, E - Maitland West Rink Pictures & Lyceum Hall
Hatsatouris, E and Sons / Bros - Port Macquarie Empire, Ritz, Civic; Walcha Civic; Laurieton School of Arts and Plaza; Kempsey West Roxy; Taree Civic, Savoy
Hlentzos, Peter - Cooma Capitol and Victor
James, Chris - Cobar Regent and Open Air, Empire and Open Air; Nyngan Palais and Open Air
Johnson, J - Gundagai Theatre
Kalligeris, C and P - Boggabri Royal, Lyric Open Air
Katsoulis, J - Yenda Regent
Koovousis, A and B - Bingara Regent and Open Air, Roxy
Kouvelis, A, J, P - Young Imperial Open Air, Lyceum Hall, Strand; Cowra Lyric, Palace, Centennial Hall; Temora Star and Open Air, Crown; Harden Lyceum; Armidale Arcadia, Capitol; Tamworth Capitol, Regent; Wagga Wagga Capitol, Capitol Gardens, Plaza, Strand, Wonderland Theatre; Moree Capitol, Capitol Garden, East Moree Theatre and Open Air, Inverell Capitol
Laurantus, G - Cootamundra Arcadia; Junee Lyceum, Atheneum; Tumut Montreal; Liverpool Regal
Laurantus, N - Narrandera Globe (1st), Globe (2nd)/Plaza, Open Air, Criterion Hall; Lockhart School of Arts Pictures, Open Air, Rio; Gundagai Theatre; Junee Lyceum, Atheneum; Corowa Rex; Hillston Roxy; Tumut Montreal.
Limbers, P - Cowra Lyric, Globe, Palace, Theatre Cowra
Logus, H - Hay Federal Hall
Louran, P - Goodooga De-Luxe
Lucas, P - Walcha Civic, Theatre
Margetis, B - Fairfield Butterfly, Crescent
Mottee Bros (E, D, G P) - Kempsey Rendezvous/Macleay Talkies, Victoria; Kempsey West Adelphi
Nicholas Bros (S and G) - Merriwa Astros
Notaras, J & A - Grafton Fitzroy, Saraton; Woolgoolga Seaview
Paspalas, A - Walgett Olympia Pictures
Peters (Petracos), P - Walgett Victoria Theatre
Peters (Pizimolas), A - Mullumbimby Empire
Poulos, A - Warialda School of Arts
Rosso, G - Mount Victoria Pictures; Carinda Megalo Theatre
Roufogalis, A and A - Barellan Royal
Simos, J - Cootamundra Arcadia, Roxy
Sotiros, A - Lake Cargelligo Star and Civic
Sourry, C - Armidale Arcadia, Capitol; Glen Innes Grand, Roxy; Tenterfield Lyric; Rose Bay North Kings
Spellson, G - Condobolin Central Theatre; Lake Cargelligo Star
Spellson, L - Bogan Gate Pictures Hall; Lake Cargelligo Star; Tullibigeal Hall and Public Hall; Ungarie
Spellson, N - Bogan Gate Pictures (at Tolhurst Hall)
Stathis, P - Tumut Montreal
Tzannes, J - Boorowa Empire
[Plus an unconfirmed report that an unknown Greek ran films in Gleeson's Hall, Wauchope for a short time around the years of World War I.]

In the very early stages of compiling the list, it was thought that the research might encompass the whole of Australia. By the time that the above list had been completed, it was felt that New South Wales alone could provide ample opportunities to discover the importance of Greek migrants to cinema exhibition prior to the early 1960s.

Research was undertaken concurrently on two fronts. Firstly, interviews with as many people as possible who were exhibitors, or family members of exhibitors. This also meant consulting a number of books to ascertain why so many people migrated from Greece in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Secondly, use was made of available primary sources (eg archive material) to construct histories of the people themselves and their cinemas, thereby balancing oral histories with facts.

A contemporary qualitative researcher, Lindlof, states that
...one interviews people to understand their perspectives on a scene, to retrieve experiences from the past, to gain expert insight or information, to obtain descriptions of events or scenes that are normally unavailable for observation, to foster trust, to understand a sensitive or intimate relationship, or to analyze certain kinds of discourse.
Because archival material can only provide part of a picture, the above thoughts were kept in mind when the oral histories commenced.

Besides Emmanuel Conomos, three others who .....recall..the 1920s/1930s and were closely linked with cinema exhibition were found: George Hatsatouris (aged 89); Anastasia Sotiros (aged 90); Nicholas Andronicos (84). Several who had entered cinema exhibition in the 1940s and 1950s were also located. Where original exhibitors had passed away, family members, friends or relations were interviewed. Some interviewing was done by telephone where distance precluded meeting. Others were done by questionnaires through the post and follow-up letters. Many were done as face-to-face interviews, the transcriptions or sets of notes returned for perusal and alterations, then amendments made. These documents, especially those with Emmanuel Conomos, George Hatsatouris (who were involved with cinema exhibition from the 1920s) and Anastasia Sotiros (who was in cinema exhibition with her husband from 1933 to 1964), provide exciting and vibrant first-hand accounts of Greek migrants who came to Australia with no English language and no money. Anastasia Sotiros' interview is a poignant story of a young woman who arrived in Australia in 1929, was married three days later, had no English language and was forced to rely for some years on the generosity of relations before moving to Lake Cargelligo in 1933 where her husband ran a semi-open air 'tin shed' cinema which had been leased in her name. In their own way, each tale was a 'success' story.

"When an old person dies, a library burns to the ground." Besides the contribution made to the research by the early exhibitors, it was gratifying to speak with those who entered the exhibition field in the 1940s and 1950s (for example, John Tzannes, Arthur and Bill Koovousis). Family members, those who were old enough to remember the 1930s, 40s and 50s, provided useful material but this was often tinged with a regretted response such as "Dad never talked much about why he did so-and-so." On the whole, family members and friends were willing to share their knowledge. They were proud that, as Greeks, their parents, grandparents or friends had made a distinct contribution to our Australian history and way-of-life. Proud to think that, having arrived with nothing, they had proved that they could make something of themselves in this country. The writer was impressed by the pride that these people have in their Greek and Australian heritages. Those old enough to remember the 1930s through to the 1950s, have been developing, for the most, an interest in their own family histories and were eager to share information about their fathers and the cinemas that they once operated. There were times when the writer was able to assist with information that clarified already known facts. Towards the end of the research, the writer surveyed a small number of people with a "Greek connection" for the purpose of ascertaining what they perceived are Greek landmarks in this state. The results were expected.

A number of primary sources were used in order to substantiate and illuminate the oral histories. Documents at the Australian Archives (such as Alien Registration Forms from World War I, and naturalisation records), the NSW State Archives (including Chief Secretary's Department and Board of Fire Commissioners' files on cinemas), the State Library of NSW (for newspapers and magazines), the Mitchell Library (photographic collections, magazines and books), the Land Titles Office of NSW, and the Australian Bureau of Statistics aided the research. Archive material is not limitless. In some cases, newspapers have not survived. A similar tale can be told of company and personal records. In her 1975 thesis, Diane Collins noted, as she searched for material on cinema-going, that archives of film distributors and exhibitors are "either unavailable or destroyed". More often than not, "destroyed" is usually the case. Once a cinema closed and/or the exhibitor passed away, there was no need to keep records. Even when a cinema was part of a chain (eg Hoyts), as the buildings were disposed of, records were dealt with in a similar fashion.

The Australian Archives holds Alien Registration Forms that were instigated in 1916 and maintained until the early 1920s. The Greek forms not only give physical and personal details, but include place of birth, date when entered Australia, then-current address and occupation. When an address changed, the person was obliged to report to the nearest police station and a form was completed. These alteration forms provided the writer with details of where each man went for a number of years prior, in most cases, to involvement in cinema exhibition. Naturalisation records (those available for perusal) provided some personal details which either corroborated existing information or filled gaps. Public access to naturalisation records has a 60-year restriction on it. After 1937, only Archive Staff can view records and the extraction of material was fraught with difficulties. Archive Staff were prepared to assist but had to work when their time permitted. Six weeks was taken to check through a supplied list. Although information (such as date of birth) was supplied at the outset, staff were unable to cross-check or make deductions based on knowledge acquired by the writer who was not present when the searches were made. To complicate matters, in some cases, names had been changed and some spellings were different to those expected.

Of the primary sources available at the NSW State Archives, the Chief Secretary's Department files relating to Theatres and Public Halls proved to be invaluable. While the contents of files differs from building to building, in general they contain inspection reports, police reports, Fire Brigade reports, correspondence between exhibitors and the Chief Secretary, architects' reports, government gazettal notices, occasional newspaper clippings and other miscellaneous material. The Board of Fire Commissioners Theatres and Public Halls' files (NSW State Archives) contain similar items but not to the extent of the Chief Secretary, who was responsible for the licensing of all theatres and public halls from 1909. The files used for this thesis have not been used before by researchers. Also at the NSW State Archives are gaol and medical records and registers of firms and company records which assisted.

In the State Library of NSW and Mitchell Library are holdings of newspapers. Where they have survived, these provided a variety of information including dates, articles about openings, closings, deaths (obituaries), advertisements, and the occasional sketch (eg proposed changes in 1935 for the Arcadia Theatre at Cootamundra) or photograph (eg James Simos' car after it had been dragged from Middle Harbour in 1938 following the accident in which he drowned). In some instances, newspapers no longer exist (eg for Lake Cargelligo in the 1930s) or holdings are incomplete (eg Junee in the late 1920s). Occasionally, libraries misplace items. When any of these situations were encountered, it became necessary to seek other primary print material (eg film trade journals) but the level of success varied. The importance of newspapers in historical research cannot be under-estimated.

Also held at the State Library of NSW and the Mitchell Library are a variety of film trade journals (such as Film Weekly, Film Weekly Motion Picture Directory - annual from 1936/37 to 1971, Everyones, Picture Show, Exhibitor, Australasian Exhibitor). These provide some details about exhibitors and cinemas through the years. Much of the information about openings and closings was provided to the journals by the exhibitors themselves and cannot be said to be a complete picture of events as it was not compulsory to forward such information. On occasions a photograph appears (eg Calligeros' Strand at Temora). Occasionally, incorrect captions have been given to photographs (eg the so-called Palace at Cootamundra, which was Limbers' Palace at Cowra).

The Mitchell Library is the repository of many photographs. Two specific collections, At Work and At Play and the NSW Government Printer, contain photographs relating to many towns and the occasional cinema of a former Greek exhibitor. Another collection of photographs exists at the Denis Wolanski Library, Sydney Opera House and contains views of Hoyts' cinemas in the late 1940s/early 1950s. Among these are some of the cinemas operated by J Kouvelis (eg Tamworth, Wagga Wagga). What makes some of the views valuable, from the point-of-view of this thesis, is that they were taken in Kouvelis/pre-Hoyts' days. Besides the named collections, photographs were provided to the writer by exhibitors, family members or others. Since these have come from private collections, it is unlikely that they will ever be seen by anyone outside the families concerned. The writer considers himself fortunate to have been permitted access to them. As the thesis progresses, the reader will see numerous photographs which are presented to add a visual component to this work.

Certificates of Title and other documents at the NSW Land Titles Office provided information about sites, land transference, leases and mortgages. In some instances, this primary source proved expensive both in money and time when seeking information for more recent years. Most councils were pleased to assist with deposited plan or volume and folio numbers. Occasionally, an employee refrained from assisting, or inadvertently supplied incorrect information. Local councils and their planning departments who were contacted for heritage details of extant cinemas built for Greek-Australians willingly provided details.

Secondary sources on the cinemas and their exhibitors are very limited. While there are some local history books written about a number of the towns covered in this thesis, for the most they tend to ignore cinemas and their exhibitors. On rare occasions, the material presented is flawed and may be due to writers' inability to access archives in Sydney or their reliance on secondary sources. While secondary resources have been read, they have been used only where primary sources are unavailable (eg in the event that newspapers no longer exist) and has been duly noted.

A number of local historical societies were contacted during the course of the research and were asked about their local cinemas and the Greeks who ran them. Responses varied from nothing to a little. On rare occasions, a society was able to provide some photographs and material, often for a fee (in some cases quite high). A few seemed parochial and gave the impression that anyone from outside their areas was "poaching". A few seemed unconcerned about their former cinemas and indicated that they would "have to think about it", especially when asked about photographs. Some letters were ignored or, presumably, lost in transit. When contacted about cafes and cinemas, The National Trust was quick to quote its fees and provide a membership application form.

When it was considered that sufficient material had been collected, a composite listing of exhibitors was created. This set out name (Greek and English), date and place of birth, date and place of death, date of arrival in Australia, the years in which the person was involved with cinema exhibition and the places and cinemas themselves. This list continued to increase with information as interviews and research continued. From the list it was possible to extract material and place it in categories. A list was made that showed place of origin and number of people from each place. This showed that, while the majority of exhibitors were from Kythera, another 11 places featured in the list. The years of birth were extracted and a list compiled. This gave an overall picture and could be used in relation to the next list which was the years of arrival in Australia. By comparing the two, it was possible to ascertain how old each Greek was when he arrived in Australia.

Using the interviews with people it was possible to construct a list that showed the level of English language with which each man arrived. This substantiated what other writers had said about the lack of English amongst the Greek migrants. Returning to the composite list, the years in which the exhibitor commenced and finished his cinema operations was extracted and formed into two separate lists. From these lists, it was easy to ascertain the duration of these men's involvement in cinema exhibition, showing that the subject group commenced in 1915 and the last to commence as in 1957. When the ended their cinema connection ranged from 1916 to 1984. An alphabetical list of all the cinema venues operated was compiled and tallied 118. From this was extracted a list of cinemas actually built by or for these men. While the various 'styles' of architecture used varies greatly, some of the buildings were fine examples of their kind. Sadly, far too few are extant and have little protection from further development. It is from this list that a number of buildings have been nominated by the writer for further study with a view to heritage listing not only for their architectural merit but for their close association to Greek migrants. As a matter of interest for future researchers, a list of known architects who designed the cinemas for these men was compiled and shows at a glance that many noted cinema architects were used.

From the interviews and other sources, a list of the men's involvement in their local communities was made. Six sub-categories were established: Lodges and service clubs; Sport; Balls/dances in their theatres; School involvement such as concerts, speech days and awards; War service, effort and recognition; Religious bi-partisanship; Other. When compiled, this listing presented an interesting overview of how these men sought acceptance in their communities. As a corollary to this list, using interviews and other sources, a list was made to show the Greek exhibitors' commercial involvement within the towns. For some this was limited while for others the towns benefited greatly. It would not be appropriate to exclude the input into the business lives of these men by their wives and families. A separate list was created to show this. From the interviews, it was possible to work out how the majority of the men saw themselves - as Greeks or Greek-Australians. This was an important part of their lives since they came from a Greek background and, with very few exception, strove to become as Australian as possible and to be accepted by the predominantly Anglo-Saxon population.

Two more lists were constructed from the composite list: number of years involved with cinema operation; year of death (if applicable). The former revealed a wide range, from one to 49 years. For the 66 exhibitors, their involvement in cinema exhibition totalled 1127 years (or an average or 16.8 years). When one considers the millions of people who were entertained in their cinemas, then it is appropriate that the contribution to our social history be acknowledged.

The thesis is not a series of short biographies. It contains a number of chapters, each of which looks at particular theme or issue. Chapter 3 presents a short history of each man to the time he became involved with cinema exhibition. Chapter 4 looks at the men's attempts to assimilate, their involvement in their towns and the role of their wives and families. Chapter 5 shows that, for some of these men, their cinema years were not always easy. Chapter 6 examines how they were discriminated against and how, because of the norms of the day, they were forced themselves to discriminate. Chapters 7 and 8 record the "Parthenons Down Under" - the 34 cinemas constructed by or on behalf of these men. Quite a number of them were far better than what might have been expected for the towns in which they were built. Some would have been hailed as fine city or suburban cinemas if they had been constructed in Sydney. Chapter 9 looks briefly at the years of cinema operation of each of the men. Chapter 10 notes the post-cinema years of each. Chapter 11 briefly discusses what are considered to be Greek landmarks and, for posterity's sake, lists a number of cinema buildings which should be examined closely for heritage purposes. Chapter 12 concludes the work.

What has been assembled in this thesis has not been done before. The taking of a particular ethnic group and detailing its contribution to the exhibition of moving pictures and the towns in which those people worked is an important step in acknowledging the role of non-Anglo-Saxon migrants in the development of this state from early this century to the early 1960s. The identification of a number of cinema buildings as deserving recognition not only for their social, cultural, architectural and technological merit but, just as importantly, for their relationship to Greek migrants is important. The Greek contribution to this state should be acknowledged more broadly than it has been so far. Official recognition of these buildings as Hellenic landmarks would force them to be maintained as reminders of those Greek men who migrated here many years ago and built their "Parthenons Down Under".

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 04.11.2004

Julie Lee (nee, Cork). Daughter, Kevin Cork.

As mentioned elsewhere,

Julie Lee, (nee, Cork), Kevin's daughter, provided me with the Ph.D in electronic format, and painstakingly searched for the photographs referred to in Chapter 7; and found, collated, and supplied them to me in electronic format. [See entry under Julie Lee.]

Every time-consuming request I made of her, re Kevin's work - she responded quickly and diligently too. This makes the job of a "collator" of Kytherian heritage, so much easier.

I think her involvement was also rewarding for her.

As she commented: "Finally we've found all the photos! It was very interesting to go through a lot of Dad's research to find these, but I think it was worth it. I can't believe how many drafts he had done of his thesis just to get to the point he finished at".

When acknowleding her mother, Merle in the previous entry I wrote:

"Research is a very thankless task. It costs money; rather than makes money. (Which undoubtedly explains why Kytherians are not very enamoured of it.)

Families make great sacrifices to help researchers realise their vision, and achieve their ends.

Merle Cork, wife of Kevin, whose Ph.D thesis - which is ostensibly about Kytherian Cinema owners and operators - is one such family member whose sacrifices have been considerable.

Upon Kevin's untimely demise, she wisely preserved intact, all his researches and his photographic record.

She also very kindly agreed to allow the Ph.D to be published on kythera-family.

We thank her profusely for this.

In many ways, she too is part of this immense labour of love which has helped to preserve a part of the Kytherian heritage which may never have been uncovered, (certainly never in the detail provided by Kevin), and would almost certainly have otherwise been lost.

Her two children - Julie Lee, and Stuart Cork, are also part of this process.
[Photographs of all family members have been posted to the web-site.]

We thank the Cork family very much".

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 04.11.2004

Merle Cork. A partner in preserving the Kytherian heritage.

Research is a very thankless task. It costs money; rather than makes money. (Which undoubtedly explains why Kytherians are not very enamoured of it.)

Families make great sacrifices to help researchers realise their vision, and achieve their ends.

Merle Cork, wife of Kevin, whose Ph.D thesis - which is ostensibly about Kytherian Cinema owners and operators - is one such family member whose sacrifices have been considerable.

Upon Kevin's untimely demise, she wisely preserved intact, all his researches and his photographic record.

She also very kindly agreed to allow the Ph.D to be published on kythera-family.

We thank her profusely for this.

In many ways, she too is part of this immense labour of love which has helped to preserve a part of the Kytherian heritage which may never have been uncovered, (certainly never in the detail provided by Kevin), and would almost certainly have otherwise been lost.

Her two children - Julie Lee, and Stuart Cork, are also part of this process.
[Photographs of all family members have been posted to the web-site.]

We thank the family very much.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 05.04.2006

Roxy Theatre Bingara - Photographs of the original Kytherian owners of the cinema.

One of Kevin Cork's laments in Chapter 7, Picture Gallery, of his Ph.D thesis - is that he could not find photographs of:

ARONEY, Emanuel (c1890 - 1972);

FEROS, Panayiotis (c1890 - 19.12.1954);

PSALTIS, Georgeos (c1900 - c1970s)


"Unfortunately, it has not been possible to find any photographs of the three men".

[The same seems to apply to:

BLYOS (Chlentzos), Constantine (20.2.1895 - 5.5.1971]

When I visited the Bingara Theatre, just prior to its official launch - the adminstrator of the Theatre revealed that she too could not manage to find any photographs.

I am certain such photographs exist, and hope that descendants of the above, will eventually post those photographs to kythera-family.


***Postscript, April 1, 2006. Peter Prineas provides the photographs.

The front cover of Peter Prineas's book, Katsehamos and the Great Idea provides us with a photograph of the three founders.

Front cover, Katsehamos and the Great Idea

"...When Peter Prineas learned in 2004 that his grandfather, Peter Feros, nicknamed ‘Katsehamos’, had built a picture theatre in the small town of Bingara in the 1930s, he wanted to know more about it. The result is ‘Katsehamos and the Great Idea - a true story of Greeks and Australians in the early twentieth century’, a book that digs deep into the shared history of Greeks and Australians, and the sometimes turbulent relations that existed between them in the period during and after the First World War..."

There are other photographs of the founders in the book Katsehamos and the Great Idea.

A set of photographs of the original founders is now on permanent display at the Roxy Theatre, Bingara, in the hallway, on the stairway, that leads up to the theatre.

Unveiling the photographs of the Roxy Theatres founders

These photographs were unveiled in a ceremony held on April 1, 2006, to mark the 70th anniversary of the founding of the theatre.

Announcement of Roxy Theatre 70th Anniversary celebrations


Yet another Kytherian "mystery" has been solved.

It is amazing what can be uncovered if someone makes an initial attempt to record history.

One small historical enquiry can generate a great deal of additional information.

In this case it has generated a very substantial book

Through his Ph.D thesis on Greek cinema ownership in NSW, Kevin Cork hoped that memories of the Greeks and Kytherians could be maintained. He also argued that attempts be made to establish a permanent connection between the founders, and the Greek landmark buildings that they established.

"If we are to remember these Hellenes for their contributions to Australia's social, architectural and technological advancement", he argued, "then it is imperative that there be Greek landmarks which are acknowledged at local and state level - ones that point to the achievements of the Greek-Australian cinema exhibitors who are the subject of this thesis. We cannot allow their histories to be forgotten, not when they provided services that positively affected millions of people, firstly, through their refreshment rooms and, secondly, through their picture theatres."

The photographs of the founders at the Roxy, establishes the Kytherian connection beautifully.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 06.11.2004

Picture Gallery. Chapt 7. of KEVIN CORK's Ph.D thesis. ROXY - Photo 6 : Interior views of the Roxy Theatre. The auditorium. Another view. Still looking like a Kytherian apothiki. 1996.

ROXY - Photo 6:

Photos 3 to 6 constitute Interior views of the Roxy Theatre.

Photo 6 - The auditorium. Most of the original decorative elements are in situ even though the building closed as a cinema nearly 40 years ago. The original proscenium is intact and is behind the large canvas screen and side drapes that were installed some years ago when a local tried to re-introduce films on an irregular basis. The raked rear stalls' floor, the flat front stalls' floor (where dances were held), the ceiling decoration and other elements are still there, waiting for someone to restore it to its 1936 condition, when it was known as the "Theatre Moderne"
.

This is a photograph of the Roxy Theatre, taken in 1996, during Kevin Cork's research. At this time Kevin was agitating for the restoration of the building.
As regular users of kythera-family will know - by 2004, the Roxy had been fully restored. Photographs of the magnificent restoration can be vieed at kythera-family, in this section.

The contrast between before and after photographs is immense.

Congratulations again, to Kevin and family, for actively participating in the process to restore a Kytherian, Hellenic, Bingara, NSW, and Australian iconic building.


During the 1990's KEVIN CORK undertook extensive research into cinema's in Australia.

Tragically, he died before completing his work, but most of the chapters of his Ph.D. Thesis, were completed.

His wife and children have kindly given permission for his work to be reproduced.

Most Australian's would be unaware of the degree to which Greeks, and particularly Kytherian Greeks dominated cinema ownership in Australia - especially in New South Wales.

Chapter 7 of Kevin's thesis, is his attempt to provide a more intimate insight into the character and lives of the Hellenes and Kytherians, who owned, and operated cinema's in New South Wales in the pre-television era. Also to highlight the Cinema's themselves - and their importance in the Hellenic and Kytherian heritage in NSW, and Australia. This has been achieved by providing photographs of people and place.

The Chapter, in written form, flows as one piece. At kythera-family, I am posting the entries, photograph by photograph.

Kevin's Picture Gallery project was never completed. It was obviously meant to be far more extensive than appears in the uncompleted manuscript; designed to chronicle the lives of all Greeks and Kytherians mentioned in the thesis.

It is incumbent on Kytherians, and Australians, generally; in particular the descendants of those who have been the subject of his thesis, to help complete this project by posting the "additional" photographs to the web.

In the meantime, all photographs mentioned in Kevin's Picture Gallery section have been "tracked down", and posted to kythera-island.

The the importance of the Hellenic and Kytherian contribution to Australian cinema ownership and history is clearly demonstrated in Chapt 7, as in all other chapters.

It is difficult to know how to pass on to Kytherians the results of Kevin Cork's important research's.

In the end, I felt that the results should be passed on in the most extensive way - i.e. in full re-publication of Chapter's.

Eventually all Chapters will appear on the kythera-family web-site.

Other entries can be sourced by searching under "Cork" on the internal search engine.

See also, Kevin Cork, under People, subsection, High Achievers.


Special thanks to Julie Lee, (nee, Cork), Kevin's daughter, who painstakingly searched for the photographs referred to in Chapter 7; found, collated, and supplied them to me in electronic format. [See entry under Julie Lee.]

As she commented: "Finally we've found all the photos! It was very interesting to go through a lot of Dad's research to find these, but I think it was worth it. I can't believe how many drafts he had done of his thesis just to get to the point he finished at".


Chapter 7: Picture Gallery

"What a pity that humans, collectively, have not been endowed with more foresight than hindsight! There'd be more pride in the preservation of our heritage in all fields of endeavour."

"A picture says a thousand words", goes the old saying. This chapter is a photograph album, put together to show what the members of the subject group achieved. Photographs of the men and, in some cases, their wives and families, appear on the following pages as a record to show who they were. Some show people as they were many years ago, at the height of their picture-show days, while others show them as they were a year or two ago when the writer interviewed them. Also included are photographs of the picture theatres that they operated. Photographs of their refreshment rooms and streetscapes of the towns in which they worked are also presented, although these are more of a rarity.

The photographs come from a variety of sources, including the albums of former exhibitors and/or their families. Normally, they would never be seen outside of family circles. The writer was privileged to be permitted to have copies taken from them and to reproduce them here. The sources of all photographs have been acknowledged.

When one looks at streetscape photographs of Walgett and Lake Cargelligo in the 1930s, the architectural statement made by the new theatres is one of vibrancy - they cannot help but be noticed. Yet, there is a sadness associated with them. Picture theatres were meant to be seen at night, but were rarely photographed at night. C Day Lewis, in his poem Newsreel (1938), refers to the picture theatre as "the dream-house" - a place where dreamers can leave "your debts asleep, your history at the door". These buildings have an ambience which evolved because of what they represented. They were places where people socialised and were entertained. (In the case of some country theatres, they were also used for dancing.) The daytime snaps of picture theatres show prominent buildings but do not capture the magic of the buildings that was created once the sun had gone down and their lights came on. This was when they drew patrons to them who were eager for a night of socialising and entertainment. In her poem, Magic, Dorothea Mackellar writes,
"Would you see some magic?
Watch what comes to pass..."
She was writing about trams, not theatres, but the sentiment is the same. By day, trams were just trams. At night, with their lights on and with sparks flashing from their poles, they became "jewelled beetles" scurrying through the dark. Night time was the best time for picture theatres because their dimensions became blurred against the darkness that surrounded them and the only way to view them was by the aid of artificial lighting which, in turn, helped to create the magic associated with them.

With so many of the theatres demolished or altered, the photographs presented on the following pages are the only permanent record of what the men in the subject group achieved.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 06.11.2004

Picture Gallery. Chapt 7. of KEVIN CORK's Ph.D thesis. ROXY - Photo 5 : Interior views of the Roxy Theatre. The auditorium. Looking like a Kytherian apothiki. 1996.

ROXY - Photo 3:

Photos 3 to 6 constitute Interior views of the Roxy Theatre.

Photo 5 - The auditorium. Most of the original decorative elements are in situ even though the building closed as a cinema nearly 40 years ago. The original proscenium is intact and is behind the large canvas screen and side drapes that were installed some years ago when a local tried to re-introduce films on an irregular basis. The raked rear stalls' floor, the flat front stalls' floor (where dances were held), the ceiling decoration and other elements are still there, waiting for someone to restore it to its 1936 condition, when it was known as the "Theatre Moderne"
.

This is a photograph of the Roxy Theatre, taken in 1996, during Kevin Cork's research. At this time Kevin was agitating for the restoration of the building.
As regular users of kythera-family will know - by 2004, the Roxy had been fully restored. Photographs of the magnificent restoration can be vieed at kythera-family, in this section.

The contrast between before and after photographs is immense.

Congratulations again, to Kevin and family, for actively participating in the process to restore a Kytherian, Hellenic, Bingara, NSW, and Australian iconic building.


During the 1990's KEVIN CORK undertook extensive research into cinema's in Australia.

Tragically, he died before completing his work, but most of the chapters of his Ph.D. Thesis, were completed.

His wife and children have kindly given permission for his work to be reproduced.

Most Australian's would be unaware of the degree to which Greeks, and particularly Kytherian Greeks dominated cinema ownership in Australia - especially in New South Wales.

Chapter 7 of Kevin's thesis, is his attempt to provide a more intimate insight into the character and lives of the Hellenes and Kytherians, who owned, and operated cinema's in New South Wales in the pre-television era. Also to highlight the Cinema's themselves - and their importance in the Hellenic and Kytherian heritage in NSW, and Australia. This has been achieved by providing photographs of people and place.

The Chapter, in written form, flows as one piece. At kythera-family, I am posting the entries, photograph by photograph.

Kevin's Picture Gallery project was never completed. It was obviously meant to be far more extensive than appears in the uncompleted manuscript; designed to chronicle the lives of all Greeks and Kytherians mentioned in the thesis.

It is incumbent on Kytherians, and Australians, generally; in particular the descendants of those who have been the subject of his thesis, to help complete this project by posting the "additional" photographs to the web.

In the meantime, all photographs mentioned in Kevin's Picture Gallery section have been "tracked down", and posted to kythera-island.

The the importance of the Hellenic and Kytherian contribution to Australian cinema ownership and history is clearly demonstrated in Chapt 7, as in all other chapters.

It is difficult to know how to pass on to Kytherians the results of Kevin Cork's important research's.

In the end, I felt that the results should be passed on in the most extensive way - i.e. in full re-publication of Chapter's.

Eventually all Chapters will appear on the kythera-family web-site.

Other entries can be sourced by searching under "Cork" on the internal search engine.

See also, Kevin Cork, under People, subsection, High Achievers.


Special thanks to Julie Lee, (nee, Cork), Kevin's daughter, who painstakingly searched for the photographs referred to in Chapter 7; found, collated, and supplied them to me in electronic format. [See entry under Julie Lee.]

As she commented: "Finally we've found all the photos! It was very interesting to go through a lot of Dad's research to find these, but I think it was worth it. I can't believe how many drafts he had done of his thesis just to get to the point he finished at".


Chapter 7: Picture Gallery

"What a pity that humans, collectively, have not been endowed with more foresight than hindsight! There'd be more pride in the preservation of our heritage in all fields of endeavour."

"A picture says a thousand words", goes the old saying. This chapter is a photograph album, put together to show what the members of the subject group achieved. Photographs of the men and, in some cases, their wives and families, appear on the following pages as a record to show who they were. Some show people as they were many years ago, at the height of their picture-show days, while others show them as they were a year or two ago when the writer interviewed them. Also included are photographs of the picture theatres that they operated. Photographs of their refreshment rooms and streetscapes of the towns in which they worked are also presented, although these are more of a rarity.

The photographs come from a variety of sources, including the albums of former exhibitors and/or their families. Normally, they would never be seen outside of family circles. The writer was privileged to be permitted to have copies taken from them and to reproduce them here. The sources of all photographs have been acknowledged.

When one looks at streetscape photographs of Walgett and Lake Cargelligo in the 1930s, the architectural statement made by the new theatres is one of vibrancy - they cannot help but be noticed. Yet, there is a sadness associated with them. Picture theatres were meant to be seen at night, but were rarely photographed at night. C Day Lewis, in his poem Newsreel (1938), refers to the picture theatre as "the dream-house" - a place where dreamers can leave "your debts asleep, your history at the door". These buildings have an ambience which evolved because of what they represented. They were places where people socialised and were entertained. (In the case of some country theatres, they were also used for dancing.) The daytime snaps of picture theatres show prominent buildings but do not capture the magic of the buildings that was created once the sun had gone down and their lights came on. This was when they drew patrons to them who were eager for a night of socialising and entertainment. In her poem, Magic, Dorothea Mackellar writes,
"Would you see some magic?
Watch what comes to pass..."
She was writing about trams, not theatres, but the sentiment is the same. By day, trams were just trams. At night, with their lights on and with sparks flashing from their poles, they became "jewelled beetles" scurrying through the dark. Night time was the best time for picture theatres because their dimensions became blurred against the darkness that surrounded them and the only way to view them was by the aid of artificial lighting which, in turn, helped to create the magic associated with them.

With so many of the theatres demolished or altered, the photographs presented on the following pages are the only permanent record of what the men in the subject group achieved.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 06.11.2004

Picture Gallery. Chapt 7. of KEVIN CORK's Ph.D thesis. ROXY - Photos 4 : Interior views of the Roxy Theatre. View of vestibule, showing it fitted-out as a restaurant, 1996.

ROXY - Photo 4:

Photos 3 to 6 constitute Interior views of the Roxy Theatre.

Photo 4 - View of vestibule, showing it fitted-out as a restaurant. Much of the original decoration remains, although the chandelier (definitely not a 1936 original) leaves much to be desired. The current paint scheme (green walls, russet cornice and central ventilation grille, deep cream ceiling) does little to enhance the 1930s feel that emanates from this area.
.

This is a photograph of the Roxy Theatre, taken in 1996, during Kevin Cork's research. At this time Kevin was agitating for the restoration of the building.
As regular users of kythera-family will know - by 2004, the Roxy had been fully restored. Photographs of the magnificent restoration can be vieed at kythera-family, in this section.

The contrast between before and after photographs is immense.

Congratulations again, to Kevin and family, for actively participating in the process to restore a Kytherian, Hellenic, Bingara, NSW, and Australian iconic building.


During the 1990's KEVIN CORK undertook extensive research into cinema's in Australia.

Tragically, he died before completing his work, but most of the chapters of his Ph.D. Thesis, were completed.

His wife and children have kindly given permission for his work to be reproduced.

Most Australian's would be unaware of the degree to which Greeks, and particularly Kytherian Greeks dominated cinema ownership in Australia - especially in New South Wales.

Chapter 7 of Kevin's thesis, is his attempt to provide a more intimate insight into the character and lives of the Hellenes and Kytherians, who owned, and operated cinema's in New South Wales in the pre-television era. Also to highlight the Cinema's themselves - and their importance in the Hellenic and Kytherian heritage in NSW, and Australia. This has been achieved by providing photographs of people and place.

The Chapter, in written form, flows as one piece. At kythera-family, I am posting the entries, photograph by photograph.

Kevin's Picture Gallery project was never completed. It was obviously meant to be far more extensive than appears in the uncompleted manuscript; designed to chronicle the lives of all Greeks and Kytherians mentioned in the thesis.

It is incumbent on Kytherians, and Australians, generally; in particular the descendants of those who have been the subject of his thesis, to help complete this project by posting the "additional" photographs to the web.

In the meantime, all photographs mentioned in Kevin's Picture Gallery section have been "tracked down", and posted to kythera-island.

The the importance of the Hellenic and Kytherian contribution to Australian cinema ownership and history is clearly demonstrated in Chapt 7, as in all other chapters.

It is difficult to know how to pass on to Kytherians the results of Kevin Cork's important research's.

In the end, I felt that the results should be passed on in the most extensive way - i.e. in full re-publication of Chapter's.

Eventually all Chapters will appear on the kythera-family web-site.

Other entries can be sourced by searching under "Cork" on the internal search engine.

See also, Kevin Cork, under People, subsection, High Achievers.


Special thanks to Julie Lee, (nee, Cork), Kevin's daughter, who painstakingly searched for the photographs referred to in Chapter 7; found, collated, and supplied them to me in electronic format. [See entry under Julie Lee.]

As she commented: "Finally we've found all the photos! It was very interesting to go through a lot of Dad's research to find these, but I think it was worth it. I can't believe how many drafts he had done of his thesis just to get to the point he finished at".


Chapter 7: Picture Gallery

"What a pity that humans, collectively, have not been endowed with more foresight than hindsight! There'd be more pride in the preservation of our heritage in all fields of endeavour."

"A picture says a thousand words", goes the old saying. This chapter is a photograph album, put together to show what the members of the subject group achieved. Photographs of the men and, in some cases, their wives and families, appear on the following pages as a record to show who they were. Some show people as they were many years ago, at the height of their picture-show days, while others show them as they were a year or two ago when the writer interviewed them. Also included are photographs of the picture theatres that they operated. Photographs of their refreshment rooms and streetscapes of the towns in which they worked are also presented, although these are more of a rarity.

The photographs come from a variety of sources, including the albums of former exhibitors and/or their families. Normally, they would never be seen outside of family circles. The writer was privileged to be permitted to have copies taken from them and to reproduce them here. The sources of all photographs have been acknowledged.

When one looks at streetscape photographs of Walgett and Lake Cargelligo in the 1930s, the architectural statement made by the new theatres is one of vibrancy - they cannot help but be noticed. Yet, there is a sadness associated with them. Picture theatres were meant to be seen at night, but were rarely photographed at night. C Day Lewis, in his poem Newsreel (1938), refers to the picture theatre as "the dream-house" - a place where dreamers can leave "your debts asleep, your history at the door". These buildings have an ambience which evolved because of what they represented. They were places where people socialised and were entertained. (In the case of some country theatres, they were also used for dancing.) The daytime snaps of picture theatres show prominent buildings but do not capture the magic of the buildings that was created once the sun had gone down and their lights came on. This was when they drew patrons to them who were eager for a night of socialising and entertainment. In her poem, Magic, Dorothea Mackellar writes,
"Would you see some magic?
Watch what comes to pass..."
She was writing about trams, not theatres, but the sentiment is the same. By day, trams were just trams. At night, with their lights on and with sparks flashing from their poles, they became "jewelled beetles" scurrying through the dark. Night time was the best time for picture theatres because their dimensions became blurred against the darkness that surrounded them and the only way to view them was by the aid of artificial lighting which, in turn, helped to create the magic associated with them.

With so many of the theatres demolished or altered, the photographs presented on the following pages are the only permanent record of what the men in the subject group achieved.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 06.11.2004

Picture Gallery. Chapt 7. of KEVIN CORK's Ph.D thesis. ROXY - Photos 3 : Interior views of the Roxy Theatre. The island ticket box set between the two sets of double entrance doors, 1996.

ROXY - Photo 3:

Photos 3 to 6 constitute Interior views of the Roxy Theatre.

Photo 3 - The island ticket box set between the two sets of double entrance doors. This leads into a long vestibule and stairway to the auditorium. In recent years, a restaurant has operated in the vestibule, with a small kitchen built into it
.

This is a photograph of the Roxy Theatre, taken in 1996, during Kevin Cork's research. At this time Kevin was agitating for the restoration of the building.
As regular users of kythera-family will know - by 2004, the Roxy had been fully restored. Photographs of the magnificent restoration can be vieed at kythera-family, in this section.

The contrast between before and after photographs is immense.

Congratulations again, to Kevin and family, for actively participating in the process to restore a Kytherian, Hellenic, Bingara, NSW, and Australian iconic building.


During the 1990's KEVIN CORK undertook extensive research into cinema's in Australia.

Tragically, he died before completing his work, but most of the chapters of his Ph.D. Thesis, were completed.

His wife and children have kindly given permission for his work to be reproduced.

Most Australian's would be unaware of the degree to which Greeks, and particularly Kytherian Greeks dominated cinema ownership in Australia - especially in New South Wales.

Chapter 7 of Kevin's thesis, is his attempt to provide a more intimate insight into the character and lives of the Hellenes and Kytherians, who owned, and operated cinema's in New South Wales in the pre-television era. Also to highlight the Cinema's themselves - and their importance in the Hellenic and Kytherian heritage in NSW, and Australia. This has been achieved by providing photographs of people and place.

The Chapter, in written form, flows as one piece. At kythera-family, I am posting the entries, photograph by photograph.

Kevin's Picture Gallery project was never completed. It was obviously meant to be far more extensive than appears in the uncompleted manuscript; designed to chronicle the lives of all Greeks and Kytherians mentioned in the thesis.

It is incumbent on Kytherians, and Australians, generally; in particular the descendants of those who have been the subject of his thesis, to help complete this project by posting the "additional" photographs to the web.

In the meantime, all photographs mentioned in Kevin's Picture Gallery section have been "tracked down", and posted to kythera-island.

The the importance of the Hellenic and Kytherian contribution to Australian cinema ownership and history is clearly demonstrated in Chapt 7, as in all other chapters.

It is difficult to know how to pass on to Kytherians the results of Kevin Cork's important research's.

In the end, I felt that the results should be passed on in the most extensive way - i.e. in full re-publication of Chapter's.

Eventually all Chapters will appear on the kythera-family web-site.

Other entries can be sourced by searching under "Cork" on the internal search engine.

See also, Kevin Cork, under People, subsection, High Achievers.


Special thanks to Julie Lee, (nee, Cork), Kevin's daughter, who painstakingly searched for the photographs referred to in Chapter 7; found, collated, and supplied them to me in electronic format. [See entry under Julie Lee.]

As she commented: "Finally we've found all the photos! It was very interesting to go through a lot of Dad's research to find these, but I think it was worth it. I can't believe how many drafts he had done of his thesis just to get to the point he finished at".


Chapter 7: Picture Gallery

"What a pity that humans, collectively, have not been endowed with more foresight than hindsight! There'd be more pride in the preservation of our heritage in all fields of endeavour."

"A picture says a thousand words", goes the old saying. This chapter is a photograph album, put together to show what the members of the subject group achieved. Photographs of the men and, in some cases, their wives and families, appear on the following pages as a record to show who they were. Some show people as they were many years ago, at the height of their picture-show days, while others show them as they were a year or two ago when the writer interviewed them. Also included are photographs of the picture theatres that they operated. Photographs of their refreshment rooms and streetscapes of the towns in which they worked are also presented, although these are more of a rarity.

The photographs come from a variety of sources, including the albums of former exhibitors and/or their families. Normally, they would never be seen outside of family circles. The writer was privileged to be permitted to have copies taken from them and to reproduce them here. The sources of all photographs have been acknowledged.

When one looks at streetscape photographs of Walgett and Lake Cargelligo in the 1930s, the architectural statement made by the new theatres is one of vibrancy - they cannot help but be noticed. Yet, there is a sadness associated with them. Picture theatres were meant to be seen at night, but were rarely photographed at night. C Day Lewis, in his poem Newsreel (1938), refers to the picture theatre as "the dream-house" - a place where dreamers can leave "your debts asleep, your history at the door". These buildings have an ambience which evolved because of what they represented. They were places where people socialised and were entertained. (In the case of some country theatres, they were also used for dancing.) The daytime snaps of picture theatres show prominent buildings but do not capture the magic of the buildings that was created once the sun had gone down and their lights came on. This was when they drew patrons to them who were eager for a night of socialising and entertainment. In her poem, Magic, Dorothea Mackellar writes,
"Would you see some magic?
Watch what comes to pass..."
She was writing about trams, not theatres, but the sentiment is the same. By day, trams were just trams. At night, with their lights on and with sparks flashing from their poles, they became "jewelled beetles" scurrying through the dark. Night time was the best time for picture theatres because their dimensions became blurred against the darkness that surrounded them and the only way to view them was by the aid of artificial lighting which, in turn, helped to create the magic associated with them.

With so many of the theatres demolished or altered, the photographs presented on the following pages are the only permanent record of what the men in the subject group achieved.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 06.11.2004

Picture Gallery. Chapt 7. of KEVIN CORK's Ph.D thesis. ROXY - Photograph 2: Side street view of the corner shop and dwelling and theatre, 1996.

ROXY - Photo 2:

Photo 2: Side street view of the corner shop and dwelling and theatre
.

This is a photograph of the Roxy Theatre, taken in 1996, during Kevin Cork's research. At this time Kevin was agitating for the restoration of the building.
As regular users of kythera-family will know - by 2004, the Roxy had been fully restored. Photographs of the magnificent restoration can be vieed at kythera-family, in this section.

The contrast between before and after photographs is immense.

Congratulations again, to Kevin and family, for actively participating in the process to restore a Kytherian, Hellenic, Bingara, NSW, and Australian iconic building.


During the 1990's KEVIN CORK undertook extensive research into cinema's in Australia.

Tragically, he died before completing his work, but most of the chapters of his Ph.D. Thesis, were completed.

His wife and children have kindly given permission for his work to be reproduced.

Most Australian's would be unaware of the degree to which Greeks, and particularly Kytherian Greeks dominated cinema ownership in Australia - especially in New South Wales.

Chapter 7 of Kevin's thesis, is his attempt to provide a more intimate insight into the character and lives of the Hellenes and Kytherians, who owned, and operated cinema's in New South Wales in the pre-television era. Also to highlight the Cinema's themselves - and their importance in the Hellenic and Kytherian heritage in NSW, and Australia. This has been achieved by providing photographs of people and place.

The Chapter, in written form, flows as one piece. At kythera-family, I am posting the entries, photograph by photograph.

Kevin's Picture Gallery project was never completed. It was obviously meant to be far more extensive than appears in the uncompleted manuscript; designed to chronicle the lives of all Greeks and Kytherians mentioned in the thesis.

It is incumbent on Kytherians, and Australians, generally; in particular the descendants of those who have been the subject of his thesis, to help complete this project by posting the "additional" photographs to the web.

In the meantime, all photographs mentioned in Kevin's Picture Gallery section have been "tracked down", and posted to kythera-island.

The the importance of the Hellenic and Kytherian contribution to Australian cinema ownership and history is clearly demonstrated in Chapt 7, as in all other chapters.

It is difficult to know how to pass on to Kytherians the results of Kevin Cork's important research's.

In the end, I felt that the results should be passed on in the most extensive way - i.e. in full re-publication of Chapter's.

Eventually all Chapters will appear on the kythera-family web-site.

Other entries can be sourced by searching under "Cork" on the internal search engine.

See also, Kevin Cork, under People, subsection, High Achievers.


Special thanks to Julie Lee, (nee, Cork), Kevin's daughter, who painstakingly searched for the photographs referred to in Chapter 7; found, collated, and supplied them to me in electronic format. [See entry under Julie Lee.]

As she commented: "Finally we've found all the photos! It was very interesting to go through a lot of Dad's research to find these, but I think it was worth it. I can't believe how many drafts he had done of his thesis just to get to the point he finished at".


Chapter 7: Picture Gallery

"What a pity that humans, collectively, have not been endowed with more foresight than hindsight! There'd be more pride in the preservation of our heritage in all fields of endeavour."

"A picture says a thousand words", goes the old saying. This chapter is a photograph album, put together to show what the members of the subject group achieved. Photographs of the men and, in some cases, their wives and families, appear on the following pages as a record to show who they were. Some show people as they were many years ago, at the height of their picture-show days, while others show them as they were a year or two ago when the writer interviewed them. Also included are photographs of the picture theatres that they operated. Photographs of their refreshment rooms and streetscapes of the towns in which they worked are also presented, although these are more of a rarity.

The photographs come from a variety of sources, including the albums of former exhibitors and/or their families. Normally, they would never be seen outside of family circles. The writer was privileged to be permitted to have copies taken from them and to reproduce them here. The sources of all photographs have been acknowledged.

When one looks at streetscape photographs of Walgett and Lake Cargelligo in the 1930s, the architectural statement made by the new theatres is one of vibrancy - they cannot help but be noticed. Yet, there is a sadness associated with them. Picture theatres were meant to be seen at night, but were rarely photographed at night. C Day Lewis, in his poem Newsreel (1938), refers to the picture theatre as "the dream-house" - a place where dreamers can leave "your debts asleep, your history at the door". These buildings have an ambience which evolved because of what they represented. They were places where people socialised and were entertained. (In the case of some country theatres, they were also used for dancing.) The daytime snaps of picture theatres show prominent buildings but do not capture the magic of the buildings that was created once the sun had gone down and their lights came on. This was when they drew patrons to them who were eager for a night of socialising and entertainment. In her poem, Magic, Dorothea Mackellar writes,
"Would you see some magic?
Watch what comes to pass..."
She was writing about trams, not theatres, but the sentiment is the same. By day, trams were just trams. At night, with their lights on and with sparks flashing from their poles, they became "jewelled beetles" scurrying through the dark. Night time was the best time for picture theatres because their dimensions became blurred against the darkness that surrounded them and the only way to view them was by the aid of artificial lighting which, in turn, helped to create the magic associated with them.

With so many of the theatres demolished or altered, the photographs presented on the following pages are the only permanent record of what the men in the subject group achieved.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 06.11.2004

Picture Gallery. Chapt 7. of KEVIN CORK's Ph.D thesis. ROXY - Photograph 1: Roxy Theatre and shops, corner Maitland and Cunningham Streets, Bingara, 1996.

ROXY - Photo 1:

Roxy Theatre and shops, corner Maitland and Cunningham Streets, Bingara.

This is the set of buildings that was commenced in 1934 and completed in 1936 when the Roxy Theatre opened. It was an adventurous project that bankrupted the three partners. It is an excellent example of integration in which the Greek developers utilised several styles of building to add interest to the streetscape. The shop at left is reminiscent of the Revivalist style of the 1920s, the theatre is 1930s Moderne, and the impressive corner building is reminiscent of affluent houses on Kythera and Kastellorizo. The living quarters on the upper floor of the two storey building contain an arched gallery facing Cunningham Street. Although the window spaces were fitted with glass panels in recent times, the gallery was originally open, to catch the evening breezes. The rear of the dwelling section has an outside stairway and formerly-open, arched gallery. (See photo 2.)

The theatre entrance, with its island ticket box at the footpath was more in keeping with USA cinema tradition than anything in Australia. Moderne 1930s shopfronts adorn the street level frontages, each with their chromium edged upper section with stepped recesses over the shop doorways. One of these has already been replaced with a new front and has destroyed the overall appearance. Recent painting of the corner block in a bright green, while attractive in itself, has detracted from the effect that once existed when the three buildings were painted in the same pale rose colour scheme.

If the local council and/or historical society does not soon seek a conservation order on this complete set of buildings, then a delightful mid-1930s country commercial development may be destroyed.
.

This is a photograph of the Roxy Theatre, taken in 1996, during Kevin Cork's research. At this time Kevin was agitating for the restoration of the building.
As regular users of kythera-family will know, that by 2004, the Roxy had been fully restored. Photographs of the magnificent restoration can be viewed at kythera-family, in this section.

The contrast between before and after photographs is immense.

Congratulations again, to Kevin and family, for actively participating in the process to restore a Kytherian, Hellenic, Bingara, NSW, and Australian iconic building.


During the 1990's KEVIN CORK undertook extensive research into cinema's in Australia.

Tragically, he died before completing his work, but most of the chapters of his Ph.D. Thesis, were completed.

His wife and children have kindly given permission for his work to be reproduced.

Most Australian's would be unaware of the degree to which Greeks, and particularly Kytherian Greeks dominated cinema ownership in Australia - especially in New South Wales.

Chapter 7 of Kevin's thesis, is his attempt to provide a more intimate insight into the character and lives of the Hellenes and Kytherians, who owned, and operated cinema's in New South Wales in the pre-television era. Also to highlight the Cinema's themselves - and their importance in the Hellenic and Kytherian heritage in NSW, and Australia. This has been achieved by providing photographs of people and place.

The Chapter, in written form, flows as one piece. At kythera-family, I am posting the entries, photograph by photograph.

Kevin's Picture Gallery project was never completed. It was obviously meant to be far more extensive than appears in the uncompleted manuscript; designed to chronicle the lives of all Greeks and Kytherians mentioned in the thesis.

It is incumbent on Kytherians, and Australians, generally; in particular the descendants of those who have been the subject of his thesis, to help complete this project by posting the "additional" photographs to the web.

In the meantime, all photographs mentioned in Kevin's Picture Gallery section have been "tracked down", and posted to kythera-island.

The the importance of the Hellenic and Kytherian contribution to Australian cinema ownership and history is clearly demonstrated in Chapt 7, as in all other chapters.

It is difficult to know how to pass on to Kytherians the results of Kevin Cork's important research's.

In the end, I felt that the results should be passed on in the most extensive way - i.e. in full re-publication of Chapter's.

Eventually all Chapters will appear on the kythera-family web-site.

Other entries can be sourced by searching under "Cork" on the internal search engine.

See also, Kevin Cork, under People, subsection, High Achievers.


Special thanks to Julie Lee, (nee, Cork), Kevin's daughter, who painstakingly searched for the photographs referred to in Chapter 7; found, collated, and supplied them to me in electronic format. [See entry under Julie Lee.]

As she commented: "Finally we've found all the photos! It was very interesting to go through a lot of Dad's research to find these, but I think it was worth it. I can't believe how many drafts he had done of his thesis just to get to the point he finished at".


Chapter 7: Picture Gallery

"What a pity that humans, collectively, have not been endowed with more foresight than hindsight! There'd be more pride in the preservation of our heritage in all fields of endeavour."

"A picture says a thousand words", goes the old saying. This chapter is a photograph album, put together to show what the members of the subject group achieved. Photographs of the men and, in some cases, their wives and families, appear on the following pages as a record to show who they were. Some show people as they were many years ago, at the height of their picture-show days, while others show them as they were a year or two ago when the writer interviewed them. Also included are photographs of the picture theatres that they operated. Photographs of their refreshment rooms and streetscapes of the towns in which they worked are also presented, although these are more of a rarity.

The photographs come from a variety of sources, including the albums of former exhibitors and/or their families. Normally, they would never be seen outside of family circles. The writer was privileged to be permitted to have copies taken from them and to reproduce them here. The sources of all photographs have been acknowledged.

When one looks at streetscape photographs of Walgett and Lake Cargelligo in the 1930s, the architectural statement made by the new theatres is one of vibrancy - they cannot help but be noticed. Yet, there is a sadness associated with them. Picture theatres were meant to be seen at night, but were rarely photographed at night. C Day Lewis, in his poem Newsreel (1938), refers to the picture theatre as "the dream-house" - a place where dreamers can leave "your debts asleep, your history at the door". These buildings have an ambience which evolved because of what they represented. They were places where people socialised and were entertained. (In the case of some country theatres, they were also used for dancing.) The daytime snaps of picture theatres show prominent buildings but do not capture the magic of the buildings that was created once the sun had gone down and their lights came on. This was when they drew patrons to them who were eager for a night of socialising and entertainment. In her poem, Magic, Dorothea Mackellar writes,
"Would you see some magic?
Watch what comes to pass..."
She was writing about trams, not theatres, but the sentiment is the same. By day, trams were just trams. At night, with their lights on and with sparks flashing from their poles, they became "jewelled beetles" scurrying through the dark. Night time was the best time for picture theatres because their dimensions became blurred against the darkness that surrounded them and the only way to view them was by the aid of artificial lighting which, in turn, helped to create the magic associated with them.

With so many of the theatres demolished or altered, the photographs presented on the following pages are the only permanent record of what the men in the subject group achieved.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 06.11.2004

Picture Gallery. Chapt 7. of KEVIN CORK's Ph.D thesis. Photograph 4: Mr and Mrs Nicholas Andronicos, Sydney, 1996.

Photo 4:

Mr and Mrs Nicholas Andronicos, Sydney, 1996
.

During the 1990's KEVIN CORK undertook extensive research into cinema's in Australia.

Tragically, he died before completing his work, but most of the chapters of his Ph.D. Thesis, were completed.

His wife and children have kindly given permission for his work to be reproduced.

Most Australian's would be unaware of the degree to which Greeks, and particularly Kytherian Greeks dominated cinema ownership in Australia - especially in New South Wales.

Chapter 7 of Kevin's thesis, is his attempt to provide a more intimate insight into the character and lives of the Hellenes and Kytherians, who owned, and operated cinema's in New South Wales in the pre-television era. Also to highlight the Cinema's themselves - and their importance in the Hellenic and Kytherian heritage in NSW, and Australia. This has been achieved by providing photographs of people and place.

The Chapter, in written form, flows as one piece. At kythera-family, I am posting the entries, photograph by photograph.

Kevin's Picture Gallery project was never completed. It was obviously meant to be far more extensive than appears in the uncompleted manuscript; designed to chronicle the lives of all Greeks and Kytherians mentioned in the thesis.

It is incumbent on Kytherians, and Australians, generally; in particular the descendants of those who have been the subject of his thesis, to help complete this project by posting the "additional" photographs to the web.

In the meantime, all photographs mentioned in Kevin's Picture Gallery section have been "tracked down", and posted to kythera-island.

The the importance of the Hellenic and Kytherian contribution to Australian cinema ownership and history is clearly demonstrated in Chapt 7, as in all other chapters.

It is difficult to know how to pass on to Kytherians the results of Kevin Cork's important research's.

In the end, I felt that the results should be passed on in the most extensive way - i.e. in full re-publication of Chapter's.

Eventually all Chapters will appear on the kythera-family web-site.

Other entries can be sourced by searching under "Cork" on the internal search engine.

See also, Kevin Cork, under People, subsection, High Achievers.


Special thanks to Julie Lee, (nee, Cork), Kevin's daughter, who painstakingly searched for the photographs referred to in Chapter 7; found, collated, and supplied them to me in electronic format. [See entry under Julie Lee.]

As she commented: "Finally we've found all the photos! It was very interesting to go through a lot of Dad's research to find these, but I think it was worth it. I can't believe how many drafts he had done of his thesis just to get to the point he finished at".


Chapter 7: Picture Gallery

"What a pity that humans, collectively, have not been endowed with more foresight than hindsight! There'd be more pride in the preservation of our heritage in all fields of endeavour."

"A picture says a thousand words", goes the old saying. This chapter is a photograph album, put together to show what the members of the subject group achieved. Photographs of the men and, in some cases, their wives and families, appear on the following pages as a record to show who they were. Some show people as they were many years ago, at the height of their picture-show days, while others show them as they were a year or two ago when the writer interviewed them. Also included are photographs of the picture theatres that they operated. Photographs of their refreshment rooms and streetscapes of the towns in which they worked are also presented, although these are more of a rarity.

The photographs come from a variety of sources, including the albums of former exhibitors and/or their families. Normally, they would never be seen outside of family circles. The writer was privileged to be permitted to have copies taken from them and to reproduce them here. The sources of all photographs have been acknowledged.

When one looks at streetscape photographs of Walgett and Lake Cargelligo in the 1930s, the architectural statement made by the new theatres is one of vibrancy - they cannot help but be noticed. Yet, there is a sadness associated with them. Picture theatres were meant to be seen at night, but were rarely photographed at night. C Day Lewis, in his poem Newsreel (1938), refers to the picture theatre as "the dream-house" - a place where dreamers can leave "your debts asleep, your history at the door". These buildings have an ambience which evolved because of what they represented. They were places where people socialised and were entertained. (In the case of some country theatres, they were also used for dancing.) The daytime snaps of picture theatres show prominent buildings but do not capture the magic of the buildings that was created once the sun had gone down and their lights came on. This was when they drew patrons to them who were eager for a night of socialising and entertainment. In her poem, Magic, Dorothea Mackellar writes,
"Would you see some magic?
Watch what comes to pass..."
She was writing about trams, not theatres, but the sentiment is the same. By day, trams were just trams. At night, with their lights on and with sparks flashing from their poles, they became "jewelled beetles" scurrying through the dark. Night time was the best time for picture theatres because their dimensions became blurred against the darkness that surrounded them and the only way to view them was by the aid of artificial lighting which, in turn, helped to create the magic associated with them.

With so many of the theatres demolished or altered, the photographs presented on the following pages are the only permanent record of what the men in the subject group achieved.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 06.11.2004

Picture Gallery. Chapt 7. of KEVIN CORK's Ph.D thesis. Photograph 3. The East Moree Cafe and Theatre c 1937.

Photo 3:

The East Moree Cafe and Theatre c1937.

Above the cafe's awning is a sign in raised cement letters "Andronicos Buildings", such was the pride in having achieved something worthwhile such as one's own cafe.

The theatre building was erected over the open air Danceland in 1936 by Nicholas Andronicos. Between the cafe and the theatre was the entrance to the "New Garden Theatre", built in 1936 and opening on 24 October of that year.

While the cafe facade looks substantial, the theatre facade was constructed of timber and imitation stone pressed metal sheeting. It was this facade that led the Chief Secretary's Department to write to Nicholas Andronicos in May 1936 saying that the local council had complained that the "entirely closed theatre [is] of unsightly appearance". The Chief Secretary suggested that, if the building had not been decorated at the front, the owner might seek approval from the local council regarding special painting considerations.

One of the East Moree Theatre's claims to fame is that Nicholas Andronicos booked "Showboat" ("Definitely the First Exhibitors in the country to show this supreme attraction" and "now in its 8th month at Sydney's Liberty") for January 1937, instead of allowing the more impressive Lyceum Theatre in downtown Moree to have it. Pictures ceased at East Moree in 1939, but this was because J K Capitol Theatres Ltd had moved into the Lyceum (renaming it the Capitol) in 1935, had built the Capitol Gardens (open air) that same year then set about trying to put Andronicos' show out of business.

Eventually, as film supply became harder to obtain owing to the influence of the newcomer, Nicholas leased the theatre to J K Capitol Theatres who promptly closed it. As Nicholas remarked, "...poor old Nick had pennies and farthings...If I had the money then, I would have pulled it down and built a nice theatre and perhaps it would have been better. But money is the thing. That's why I built whatever I could and how I could..." The buildings are extant but the theatre was converted into shops many years ago
.

During the 1990's KEVIN CORK undertook extensive research into cinema's in Australia.

Tragically, he died before completing his work, but most of the chapters of his Ph.D. Thesis, were completed.

His wife and children have kindly given permission for his work to be reproduced.

Most Australian's would be unaware of the degree to which Greeks, and particularly Kytherian Greeks dominated cinema ownership in Australia - especially in New South Wales.

Chapter 7 of Kevin's thesis, is his attempt to provide a more intimate insight into the character and lives of the Hellenes and Kytherians, who owned, and operated cinema's in New South Wales in the pre-television era. Also to highlight the Cinema's themselves - and their importance in the Hellenic and Kytherian heritage in NSW, and Australia. This has been achieved by providing photographs of people and place.

The Chapter, in written form, flows as one piece. At kythera-family, I am posting the entries, photograph by photograph.

Kevin's Picture Gallery project was never completed. It was obviously meant to be far more extensive than appears in the uncompleted manuscript; designed to chronicle the lives of all Greeks and Kytherians mentioned in the thesis.

It is incumbent on Kytherians, and Australians, generally; in particular the descendants of those who have been the subject of his thesis, to help complete this project by posting the "additional" photographs to the web.

In the meantime, all photographs mentioned in Kevin's Picture Gallery section have been "tracked down", and posted to kythera-island.

The the importance of the Hellenic and Kytherian contribution to Australian cinema ownership and history is clearly demonstrated in Chapt 7, as in all other chapters.

It is difficult to know how to pass on to Kytherians the results of Kevin Cork's important research's.

In the end, I felt that the results should be passed on in the most extensive way - i.e. in full re-publication of Chapter's.

Eventually all Chapters will appear on the kythera-family web-site.

Other entries can be sourced by searching under "Cork" on the internal search engine.

See also, Kevin Cork, under People, subsection, High Achievers.


Special thanks to Julie Lee, (nee, Cork), Kevin's daughter, who painstakingly searched for the photographs referred to in Chapter 7; found, collated, and supplied them to me in electronic format. [See entry under Julie Lee.]

As she commented: "Finally we've found all the photos! It was very interesting to go through a lot of Dad's research to find these, but I think it was worth it. I can't believe how many drafts he had done of his thesis just to get to the point he finished at".


Chapter 7: Picture Gallery

"What a pity that humans, collectively, have not been endowed with more foresight than hindsight! There'd be more pride in the preservation of our heritage in all fields of endeavour."

"A picture says a thousand words", goes the old saying. This chapter is a photograph album, put together to show what the members of the subject group achieved. Photographs of the men and, in some cases, their wives and families, appear on the following pages as a record to show who they were. Some show people as they were many years ago, at the height of their picture-show days, while others show them as they were a year or two ago when the writer interviewed them. Also included are photographs of the picture theatres that they operated. Photographs of their refreshment rooms and streetscapes of the towns in which they worked are also presented, although these are more of a rarity.

The photographs come from a variety of sources, including the albums of former exhibitors and/or their families. Normally, they would never be seen outside of family circles. The writer was privileged to be permitted to have copies taken from them and to reproduce them here. The sources of all photographs have been acknowledged.

When one looks at streetscape photographs of Walgett and Lake Cargelligo in the 1930s, the architectural statement made by the new theatres is one of vibrancy - they cannot help but be noticed. Yet, there is a sadness associated with them. Picture theatres were meant to be seen at night, but were rarely photographed at night. C Day Lewis, in his poem Newsreel (1938), refers to the picture theatre as "the dream-house" - a place where dreamers can leave "your debts asleep, your history at the door". These buildings have an ambience which evolved because of what they represented. They were places where people socialised and were entertained. (In the case of some country theatres, they were also used for dancing.) The daytime snaps of picture theatres show prominent buildings but do not capture the magic of the buildings that was created once the sun had gone down and their lights came on. This was when they drew patrons to them who were eager for a night of socialising and entertainment. In her poem, Magic, Dorothea Mackellar writes,
"Would you see some magic?
Watch what comes to pass..."
She was writing about trams, not theatres, but the sentiment is the same. By day, trams were just trams. At night, with their lights on and with sparks flashing from their poles, they became "jewelled beetles" scurrying through the dark. Night time was the best time for picture theatres because their dimensions became blurred against the darkness that surrounded them and the only way to view them was by the aid of artificial lighting which, in turn, helped to create the magic associated with them.

With so many of the theatres demolished or altered, the photographs presented on the following pages are the only permanent record of what the men in the subject group achieved.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 05.01.2006

Picture Gallery. Chapt 7. of KEVIN CORK's Ph.D thesis. Photograph 2. Nicholas, Alexandra, (nee, Andronicus - later Mrs Jack Feros, Barraba), Mrs Steve Christian (nee, Helen Andronicos), and John Andronicos.. c. 1930's.

Photo 2:

Nicholas, Alexandra, (nee, Andronicus - later Mrs Jack Feros, Barraba), Mrs Steve Christian (nee, Helen Andronicus), and John Andronicos. It was taken possibly in the early 1930s. Even the heat of Moree did not stop the gentlemen from donning three-piece suits for a photograph.


During the 1990's KEVIN CORK undertook extensive research into cinema's in Australia.

Tragically, he died before completing his work, but most of the chapters of his Ph.D. Thesis, were completed.

His wife and children have kindly given permission for his work to be reproduced.

Most Australian's would be unaware of the degree to which Greeks, and particularly Kytherian Greeks dominated cinema ownership in Australia - especially in New South Wales.

Chapter 7 of Kevin's thesis, is his attempt to provide a more intimate insight into the character and lives of the Hellenes and Kytherians, who owned, and operated cinema's in New South Wales in the pre-television era. Also to highlight the Cinema's themselves - and their importance in the Hellenic and Kytherian heritage in NSW, and Australia.

The Chapter as written - flows as one piece. At kythera-family, I am posting the entries, photograph by photograph.

Kevin's Picture Gallery project was never completed. It was obviously meant to be far more extensive than appears in the uncompleted manuscript; designed to chronicle the lives of all Greeks and Kytherians mentioned in the thesis.

It is incumbent on Kytherians, and Australians, generally; in particular the descendants of those who have been the subject of his thesis, to help complete this project by posting the "additional" photographs to the web.

In the meantime, all photographs mentioned in Kevin's Picture Gallery section have been "tracked down", and posted to kythera-island.

The the importance of the Hellenic and Kytherian contribution to Australian cinema ownership and history is clearly demonstrated in Chapt 7, as in all other chapters.

It is difficult to know how to pass on to Kytherians the results of Kevin Cork's important research's.

In the end, I felt that the results should be passed on in the most extensive way - i.e. in full re-publication of Chapter's.

Eventually all Chapters will appear on the kythera-family web-site.

Other entries can be sourced by searching under "Cork" on the internal search engine.

See also, Kevin Cork, under People, subsection, High Achievers.


Special thanks to Julie Lee, (nee, Cork), Kevin's daughter, who painstakingly searched for the photographs referred to in Chapter 7; found, collated, and supplied them to me in electronic format. [See entry under Julie Lee.]

As she commented: "Finally we've found all the photos! It was very interesting to go through a lot of Dad's research to find these, but I think it was worth it. I can't believe how many drafts he had done of his thesis just to get to the point he finished at".


Chapter 7: Picture Gallery

"What a pity that humans, collectively, have not been endowed with more foresight than hindsight! There'd be more pride in the preservation of our heritage in all fields of endeavour."

"A picture says a thousand words", goes the old saying. This chapter is a photograph album, put together to show what the members of the subject group achieved. Photographs of the men and, in some cases, their wives and families, appear on the following pages as a record to show who they were. Some show people as they were many years ago, at the height of their picture-show days, while others show them as they were a year or two ago when the writer interviewed them. Also included are photographs of the picture theatres that they operated. Photographs of their refreshment rooms and streetscapes of the towns in which they worked are also presented, although these are more of a rarity.

The photographs come from a variety of sources, including the albums of former exhibitors and/or their families. Normally, they would never be seen outside of family circles. The writer was privileged to be permitted to have copies taken from them and to reproduce them here. The sources of all photographs have been acknowledged.

When one looks at streetscape photographs of Walgett and Lake Cargelligo in the 1930s, the architectural statement made by the new theatres is one of vibrancy - they cannot help but be noticed. Yet, there is a sadness associated with them. Picture theatres were meant to be seen at night, but were rarely photographed at night. C Day Lewis, in his poem Newsreel (1938), refers to the picture theatre as "the dream-house" - a place where dreamers can leave "your debts asleep, your history at the door". These buildings have an ambience which evolved because of what they represented. They were places where people socialised and were entertained. (In the case of some country theatres, they were also used for dancing.) The daytime snaps of picture theatres show prominent buildings but do not capture the magic of the buildings that was created once the sun had gone down and their lights came on. This was when they drew patrons to them who were eager for a night of socialising and entertainment. In her poem, Magic, Dorothea Mackellar writes,
"Would you see some magic?
Watch what comes to pass..."
She was writing about trams, not theatres, but the sentiment is the same. By day, trams were just trams. At night, with their lights on and with sparks flashing from their poles, they became "jewelled beetles" scurrying through the dark. Night time was the best time for picture theatres because their dimensions became blurred against the darkness that surrounded them and the only way to view them was by the aid of artificial lighting which, in turn, helped to create the magic associated with them.

With so many of the theatres demolished or altered, the photographs presented on the following pages are the only permanent record of what the men in the subject group achieved.

Photos > Cafes, Shops & Cinemas

submitted by George Poulos on 03.11.2004

Athenium Theatre, Junee, view towards the Stage from High Reserve area.

This, and a number of photographs that have been posted in sequence, are photo's that were given to Professor Ross Thorne, Department of Architecture, Sydney University, by Peter Laurantus, son of George Laurantus; and to Kevin Campion, a former owner of the theatre, (the 1950's).

All the photographs pertain to the Junee Athenium Theatre.

I would like to thank Professor Ross Thorne for providing the photographs to me in digitalised format.

Ross Thorne's contribution to the preservation of "Kytherian" and Hellenic Cinema's in NSW, has been discusssed in other entries. [Search under Thorne]. Particularly influential was a report he co-authored with Les Tod and Kevin Cork, to the Australian Heritage Office (NSW), in 1996.

Thorne, Ross, Les Tod & Kevin Cork (1996) Movie Theatre Heritage Register for New South Wales 18,96-1996, Sydney: Department of Architecture, University of Sydney. A National Estate Project for the Heritage Office (NSW) and the Australian Heritage Commission.

Peters father Yeoryios - George - was born 10.6.1894, in Kalisperianika, Kythera.

He died on 3.6.1980, in Sydney, NSW.

He arrived in Australia on 1.11.1908.

From 1923 he was engaged in businesses - including cinemas. He either co-owned or leased numerous cinemas, including, the Cootamundra Arcadia, Junee Lyceum, Junee Atheneum, Tumut Montreal (not run by him - leased to P Stathis), and the Liverpool Regal.

More details can be obtained on George Laurantus, by referring to Kevin Cork's Ph.D thesis, posted to kythera-family in this section, or by searching under Laurantus with the internal search engine.