submitted by George Poulos on 31.10.2004
George N. Leontsinis The Island of Kythera: A Social History (1700-1863).
Population changes on Kythera.
Chapter 38, of Peter Vanges, Kythera. A History.. Kytherian Association of Australia. 1993.
Kythera was subject to foreign occupation throughout history. Each of these occupiers effected the lives of the Kytherians and caused a wave of immigration into or out of the island. There is no doubt that events and opportunities taking place in other parts of the world caused very noticeable fluctations to the population of Kythera. This list below illustrates some of these changes, and the forces behind them.
2000 Porphyrousa inhabited and Skandia was built
1500 City of Kythera built
1400 Destruction of Crete, and the city of Skandia
1000 Depletion of population
370 Arrival and martyrdom of Elesa at Kythera
700 Pirate attacks - decrease in population
900 St. Theodore arrives - island considered uninhabited
1100 Increase in population under Sparta - Crusades
1160 Discovery of icon of Myrtidiotissa
1204 Kythera under Venetian control
1453 Fall of Byzantium - population of Kythera on the increase
1503 Strengthening of fortifications of the Kastro at Hora - population over 5,000
1537 Barbarossa attacked Kythera. Destruction of Paliohora, sharp fall in population to less than 2,000
1545 Records indicate the population of Kythera to be 1,800
1565 Population 3,000. Fortress of Mylopotamos built
1570 Population 4,000
1620 Population 7,500
1760 Population 6,000 - Pirate attacks
1785 Population 8,000
1820 Population 10,000. Ionian nation formed
1825 Population 12,200. British control. Struggle for Greek independence
1830 Population 8,600
1840 Population 9,400
1845 Population 11,800
1850 Population 12,500
1855 Population 13,100
1860 Population 13,700
1863 Population 14,600. Second wave of immigration to Smyrna
1890 Population 9,300. Immigration to Asia Minor ceases
1895 Population 12,300
1917 Population 13,102. Kythera declared as an independent state
1920 Population 9,700. Immigration to Australia and the USA
1940 Population 8,000. German occupation. Kytherians from other parts of Greece seek refuge on the
island. Population swells to well over 20,000 for a short period.
1960 Population 5,000. Immigration continues.
1990 Population 3,000. Immigration to Australia and USA ceases.
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