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History > Photography

submitted by George Poulos on 11.08.2008

A Flag for Kythera. Proposal 3. Proposal utilising the letter K - for Kythera - a universal letter in most of the worlds' alphabets.

Drawing on the superior vexillogical designs of the flags of South Africa and the United Kingdom, and fusing them with the field of the Greek flag.

History > Photography

submitted by John Procopiadis on 13.01.2006

Ayia Trias (Holy Trinity), Surry Hills.

Greek Independence Day, 25 March
1937.

Always known as "the Kytherian church".

History > Photography

submitted by Ruth Ostrow on 13.01.2006

Andronicus family logo.

The Andronicus Family

Becoming a cafe society

From, The New Boy Network

Ruth Ostrow

William Heinemann Australia
Richmond, Victoria
1987


Charles Andronicus makes no bones about what is at the root of his family’s success. ‘It is because of the influx of Europeans after the Second War. That is when coffee, espresso machines and cafes became popular. ‘Our growth is owed to the continental person, especially Hungarians. They brought cafe lounges to Australia after the war. They showed us how to enjoy life.’
Coffee, like so many food products, was largely neglected by the local population.
But as the Andronicus family, the Lipkies and Carlo Valmorbida soon discovered, the influx of immigrants after the Second World War helped acquaint Australians with these foreign tastes and lead to a surge in popularity in many continental, Middle Eastern and Asian foods.
Charles, 58, says that after the Second World War, the Nestle company launched Nescafe instant coffee in Australia which also ‘helped to put coffee on the map’.
The next thing the Andronjcus family knew, they were selling mass quantities of their coffee to the leading supermarkets and cafes.
Ironically Nestle, a Swiss-owned food multi-national, recently bought the trading activities (brand names) of the business from the family, in the way that many larger corporations have taken over family businesses in the past few decades.
Charles, who admits that as a young man he used to ‘open the upstairs window of the shop and throw my dad’s golfball-sized chocolates at the heads of passing tram guards’, now runs a restaurant-coffee lounge in the city with one of his children, Grant. His brother George, 55, is continuing on at the Andronicus factory as an adviser.
The Andronicus business started as a tiny shop in George Street near Circular Quay, where Charles’ father John, and John’s brothers Charles and Emmanuel, used to sell their hand-dipped chocolates and their coffee from 1910 onwards.
John came to Australia at the turn of the century. He was thirteen years old and one of eleven children. The Greek island of Kythera where he was born was barren and poor and John’s father—a fisherman—encouraged him to leave in search of a better, more affluent, life. Five of his brothers were already in Australia so he came here and, after some schooling, joined his brothers in the shop.
The business ambled along for many years, selling a variety of foods, but the Depression took its toll as did the opening of the Harbour Bridge in 1932. This meant that traffic which had previously gone down George Street was now diverted.
As a result, John bought his brothers out in 1937. While he continued the retail operations, he also did some wholesaling on a small scale, and manufactured coffee and hand-dipped chocolates.
Charles says his father John and his mother Kathleen roasted and ground coffee for retail and wholesale, at the shop, using raw coffee they had brought in from Arabia, Africa India, Brazil and New Guinea.
Then the war broke out and luxury products such as choco lates and coffee did very well, according to Charles, who together with his brother George had begun working in the business on school holi­days. But he says: ‘As there was little manpower to run the business, Dad was working 14 hours a day, seven days a week. He would close the shop at 5 pm and then go out to the factory to start mixing the cream for the hand-dipped chocolate.’
In 1946 John sold the choco­lates business to focus his efforts on coffee. His brother Charles then decided to open a chocolate shop and small factory to continue the sale of Andronicus hand-dipped chocolates.
John, meanwhile, started selling continental food in the premises alongside his coffee. This included olives, sesame seeds, block cheese and halva.
His son Charles used to drive around the city in his MG delivering coffee to people.
In the early 1960s his children, Charles and George, formed their own wholesale company, Andronicus Coffee Pty Ltd, while John and Kathleen continued at the shop until 1973 when it had to be closed to make way for development. (The Sydney Regent hotel now stands on the site.)
Then the boys opened a factory at Crows Nest in Sydney and from that location the wholesale and distribution business was also conducted. Later other factories were opened. Charles says:
‘We had to expand—we couldn’t leave it at that. We had to grow.’ Woolworths showed interest in the product and ‘within a year our coffee beans were in practically every Woolworths food store in the state, as well as in other supermarkets such as Franklins.’ The business grew substantially, then in 1984 Charles sold out to George who in 1986 accepted a takeover offer from Nestle.

Nestles corporate time-line:

NestleHistTimelineAUS.pdf

Charles says: ‘Dad’s ambition was to build up a company that could be enjoyed and later taken over by his sons. He created good-will and my brother and I just expanded on it. He left us a beautiful name, we were able to approach any bank for credit. My mother was his right arm.
‘His success came in that he was prepared to work hard. The old Greeks knew how to work in those days. They were taught to work hard and think hard.’

Pendergrast's The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World

History > Photography

submitted by Estiator Magazine on 12.01.2006

The Foods of the Greek Islands: Cooking and Culture at the Crossroads of the Mediterranean, by Aglaia Kremezi.

Houghton Mifflin, November 2000

Hardcover, $35.00

Full-color photographs throughout

ISBN: 0-395-98211-1

Including recipes from New York's acclaimed Molyvos Restaurant

"Aglaia's Kremezi's book is as seductive as the Greek islands she evokes." — Claudia Roden

Let's shatter the idea that Greek food is little more than stuffed grape leaves, a greek salad, and a gryo eaten on a city street corner. Greece, like its Mediterranean neighbor, Italy, has exciting regional cooking that is based on fresh, seasonal ingredients. Now comes a book to help us appreciate the diversity of and history behind Greek cuisine.

The Foods of the Greek Islands: Cooking and Culture at the Crossroads of the Mediterranean, by Aglaia Kremezi, is a groundbreaking cookbook featuring the regional foods of the more than 170 inhabited Greek islands. The recipes from the islands vary tremendously and include Tomato Patties from Santorini; Spaghetti and Lobster from Kithira; Braised Lamb with Artichokes from Chios; Greens and Potato Stew from Crete; Spinach, Leek and Fennel Pie from Skopelos; and Rolled Baklava from Kos. Now that's Mediterranean!

Aglaia Kremezi is an Athens journalist, an award-winning cookbook author, and a frequent contributor to magazines, including Gourmet. Over the last eight years she has been collecting recipes from local island women, fishermen, farmers, and bakers. Many of these recipes have never been recorded, just passed down through the generations.

Greece has served as a crossroads to the Mediterranean since the time of Homer. The islands are located between Italy and Turkey, which have often been at war with each another throughout history. That fact made for hard times but resulted in some wonderful food. Italian influences show up in Greek pastas and polentas. Eastern seasonings turn up in many dishes.

"Greek island cooking relies on flavorful ingredients rather than complicated techniques," says Kremezi. Seasonal vegetables, leafy greens, grains, olives, olive oil, beans, local cheeses, fish (fresh or cured), occasionally meat, and fresh herbs and seasonings like fennel, dill, thyme, and garlic are the ingredients for everyday cooking on the Greek islands.

Island cooking has always been shaped by the various rites of the Greek Orthodox Church. Christmas, Easter, and August 15, the feast of the Virgin Mary's Assumption, are the most colorful of the festivals. Easter is preceded by the 40 days of Lent, during which people abstain from all foods derived from animals (meat, dairy products, and eggs), as they do every Wednesday and Friday throughout the year. This abstention has inspired cooks to invent a number of exquisite vegetarian dishes that substitute for the more familiar versions made with meat. Lenten Grape Leaves Stuffed with Rice; Pasta with Olive Oil, Onions, and Spices; Tomato and Onion Flatbread, and Zucchini or Chickpea Fritters are just a few of the flavorful examples. There is plenty of celebration food as well, like Roast Leg of Lamb with Potatoes, fragrant with garlic, oregano, and thyme, and Baked Chicken with Orzo.

Through the transcription of these treasured recipes, the stories of local traditions and customs, and Kremezi's beautiful photographs of islanders preparing their specialties The Foods of the Greek Islands records a cuisine and a way of life that could have been lost.

Biographical Information

Aglaia Kremezi


http://www.estiator.com

Aglaia Kremezi was born in Athens. She is a journalist, writer, photographer and food columnist for the Sunday Athens paper Kyriakatiki Eleftherotypia and the Greek edition of Votre Beaute magazine. She is also a contributing author for the Los Angeles Times, Gourmet magazine, BBC Good Food magazine, Bonne Appetit, and other publications.

Her first book, The Foods of Greece, published by Stewart, Tabori and Chang in New York, won the Julia Child "First Book" award, in April '94.

Her next two books, Mediterranean Pantry, and Mediterranean Hot, were both published by Artisan/Workman and later translated into Greek.

She is part of the team of Master Chefs --together with Roger Verger, Michel Roux, Richard Olney and others-- creating a small illustrated collection of Meze and Antipasti, for the series "Classic Recipes" published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson, in London.

She has also published in Athens two collections of her food columns that became best sellers in Greece.

Her book about the The Cooking Of The Greek Islands, published by Houghton Mifflin, USA, in the fall of 2000 has proved to ne immensely successful.

She has appeared on Good Morning America, CBS, and other major and local TV stations and also taught at Macy's Degustibus, at the French Culinary Institute in New York, and many other cooking Schools around the country, promoting her books and authentic Mediterranean Cuisine.

Cooking was always her passion and she is an avid collector of cookbooks and recipes from all over the world. She has studied the history of ancient Greek and Mediterranean cuisines and has taken part in and given papers to many world conferences on food.

In 1997 she was invited to be the consultant -working with the chefs and developing the menu- for Molyvos, the new upscale Greek restaurant in New York (7th avenue at 55th street) which was awarded three stars by Ruth Reichl of the New York Times.

You can order her books by calling Cosmos Publishing,
tel : (201) 664-3494 USA

Kea

Aglaia currently lives on the island of Kea, where she conducts a cooking school.

The school, in the kitchen of Aglaia’s house on the Cycladic island of Kea, is located in a little valley not far from the sea. It is surrounded by olive and almond trees, a small vegetable garden and lots of wild and cultivated Mediterranean aromatic shrubs. Classes are held in the kitchen, and the lunches are served al fresco, under a canopy. There is a BBQ and a traditional wood-burning oven in the garden.

Kea is the island of the Cyclades closest to the Athens --from the airport, a 30-minute drive and then only 1 hour by ferry.

Price: 1695 US Dollar per person

USD 1695.00 is the cost of a full 8-day program. Shorter programs may be organized upon request. InfoHub discount coupons are accepted for groups of three or more persons coming through the same source. No classes are held in August.

More infromation:

http://www.infohub.com/vacation_schools/576.html.

History > Photography

submitted by Estiator Magazine on 12.01.2006

Mediterranean Hot, by Aglaia Kremezi.

Editorial Reviews

From Amazon's "Booklist"


Hot in Mediterranean culinary lingo means the use of one or more of the following spices: capers, chilies, cilantro, cumin, garlic, onion, paprika, or hot pepper. Kremezi's book is distinguished by her twist on tradition; here, Greek moussaka boasts spices and a yogurt topping, and pesto excludes basil and garlic to feature arugula, cilantro, mint, and parsley. Lengthy kitchen preparations for many of the dishes preclude the book's use by novices or by home chefs with little discretionary time. Barbara Jacobs

Book Description

In Mediterranean Hot, award-winning author Aglaia Kremezi has brought together two of the most popular trends in cooking today: Mediterranean and Spicy. Chilies and other pungent spices are an important element of Mediterranean cooking, one of the healthiest and most favored cuisine of the '90s. Although the hot, chili and spice-flavored cuisine of Mexico, Asia, and India are well known, delectable hot and spicy dishes are abundant in North Africa, and Turkey, and there are also many traditional chili-flavored dishes in Sicily, Southern France, and Greece.

The 60 recipes include traditional spicy favorites as well as less spicy dishes that benefit from added piquancy. The recipes are easy to prepare and use widely available ingredients. And because their spiciness makes them so favorable without fat, many dishes are low in fat. This enticing collection of recipes is enhanced throughout by the lively illustrations of Linda Frichtel.

Recipes include:

--Couscous with Beef, Almonds, and Vegetables.

--Green Beans with Garlic, Chili, and Cilantro

--Yogurt Sauce with Hot Paprika and Scallions

--Eggplant Salad with Yogurt and Cilantro

--Tomato, Cucumber, and Parsley Salad

--Lamb Chops with Anchovy Sauce

--Spicy Potato Focaccia

--Moussaka with Egg Plant and Peppers

Illustrations by Linda Frichtel. A Book-of-the-Month Club selection

Buying and using spices and hot peppers

http://www.gourmet.gr/greek-food/show.asp?gid=9&nodeid=78&arid=3787

Most spices are still being imported from the East, but they are not so valuable as they were in the Middle Ages. India is the main spices exporter, however other Asian countries – such as Indonesia, Madagascar and Malaysia – also produce pepper, cress, ginger, cinnamon and cassia (Chinese cinnamon), clove and vanilla. The unstable economies of many Third World countries depend to a great degree on their spices’ export. Millions of families are employed in spice plantations of intensified production, cultivating these plants, collecting and drying the aromatic products, which then go on to the European markets.

Choosing spices from the supermarket shelf is of course easy but it does not always ensure the quality of the products. On the other hand, stores that specialize in "colonial" products and the various markets, supply the consumer, most of the times, with fresher and more aromatic seasonings. Often, when choosing spices, their appearance may be a trap. That is why you have to trust your sense of smell and taste. In order to achieve the most tasty results possible, buy whole spices and grind them in small quantities – so as to cover your needs for one or two weeks – in a clean coffee or spice grinder, or pound them in the mortar. Whenever you find spices of excellent quality, buy them in large quantities and freeze them in air-tight containers.

Of course, cooking with various seasonings requires practice, imagination and a full rack of spices. The quantities that are suggested in the recipes of this book are just a starting point. Besides, the taste, causticity and flavor of each spice, or blend of spices, varies depending on their country of origin, their year of production, their freshness, the drying method used, etc.

In the local cook books of the various regions of North Africa and the Middle East, the amount of pepper, hot pepper and other spices and flavorings is rarely specified in the recipes. The cooks do not measure. They work based on their experience and adjust the amounts depending on the occasion and their flavor instinct. Many families also have their own special combinations and blends of spices, which are usually an extremely well kept secret, which is disclosed only to the next generation.

In order to learn the fine art of seasoning foods, one can count first on the trial and error method – that is, on experience that is acquired with practice. It is better if you begin with small quantities, tasting, and then adding more spices. Take into account that freshly cooked entrees, for example, need to sit for a few hours or even all night in order for the full taste of the dish to develop. Taste the food on the next day, to see if it needs more seasoning.

It is necessary to know that freezing foods that contain hot peppers increases the causticity of the dish, because the molecules of their hot flesh split, thus liberating more tang.

Always buy whole grains of pepper. The grains of the black pepper are produced by drying out the unripe fruit of the plant, after it has sat for a few days after being collected, so that the necessary fermentation can occur. Black pepper is aromatic and hot and should be pound, ground or grated a little while before it is used. Many varieties – like the strong and very hot tellicherry and the milder malabar – are available at selected spice stores. In general, ask for pepper grains of the best quality from India – uniform and without stems. Pepper grains are preserved for years, so buying a large quantity of them is quite advantageous. White pepper grains are dried, mature, peeled fruits. White pepper is hotter, less aromatic and more expensive. I use it as a seasoning in white sauces, soft cheeses and sweets, because for most dishes I prefer the more complex taste of black pepper. However, since it is clearly a matter of personal taste, try the same dish with black and white pepper to see which one you prefer. The green pepper grains, which are less hot, are unripe fruit, preserved in salt water or frozen. Pink pepper (Schinus molle) is not related exactly to pepper. Pink pepper grains, which crumble and are ground very easily, are not hot but aromatic, leaving a sourish flavor in the mouth. This is why pink pepper is used mostly for flavoring sauces.

On the other hand, hot peppers, despite their name, the only common thing they have with pepper grains is their causticity. Hot peppers belong to the solanaceous (solanaceae) plant family – potatoes, tomatoes and tobacco also belong to it - which were imported to Europe from the New World, after Christopher Columbus’s journeys. Capsicum annum is the biological term for most species of very hot and somewhat milder in tang pepper plants that are cultivated today all over the world. Pepper plants differ greatly in tang – among various species but often even in the same species; there are mild to extremely hot peppers. Even if two peppers are seemingly identical, it is very probable that their flavor and causticity differ, depending on the soil and the climate of the country where they were cultivated. Any type of fresh hot peppers – small dark green, yellowish or red – may be used for the recipes of this book. Most Mediterranean peppers ripen on the plant, giving them a more intense and full taste. However, we can cultivate the species of hot pepper that we prefer the best in pots at a sunny balcony or window sill – at least we who live in a country with a warm climate and lots of sunshine, like Greece.

If, however, you prefer more complex flavors, use "halepiko" or pepper from the Near East, which usually comes from Turkey or Syria. This spice is produced from medium hot red peppers – that have ripened on the plant – that have been dried in the sun, seeded and pounded. The red pepper flakes (boukovo) that one can find in the supermarket do not quite substitute the "halepiko" pepper. Boukovo is a lot hotter and without any special flavor. Good Hungarian paprika – a combination of mild paprika and a small quantity of hot pepper – is also used in the Mediterranean, especially in the Balkans and Israel.

Other tasty and interesting alternatives to the Mediterranean pepper is the excellent Spanish pimenton picante, as well as the unimaginably hot peperoncini – the Italian hot small peppers, that are grown in pots as decorative plants, and you will find them in the outdoor farmers’ markets.

In any case, whatever type of hot pepper you use, I would suggest that you experiment by making various combinations, to find the one that will give you the best result and will add a different dimension to many of your favorite everyday dishes.

Table of contents: Buying and using spices and hot peppers

Text kindly provided by Aglaia Kremezi , author of Mediterranean Hot.

Published by "Ellinika Grammata".

Biographical Information

Aglaia Kremezi


http://www.estiator.com

Aglaia Kremezi was born in Athens. She is a journalist, writer, photographer and food columnist for the Sunday Athens paper Kyriakatiki Eleftherotypia and the Greek edition of Votre Beaute magazine. She is also a contributing author for the Los Angeles Times, Gourmet magazine, BBC Good Food magazine, Bonne Appetit, and other publications.

Her first book, The Foods of Greece, published by Stewart, Tabori and Chang in New York, won the Julia Child "First Book" award, in April '94.

Her next two books, Mediterranean Pantry, and Mediterranean Hot, were both published by Artisan/Workman and later translated into Greek.

She is part of the team of Master Chefs --together with Roger Verger, Michel Roux, Richard Olney and others-- creating a small illustrated collection of Meze and Antipasti, for the series "Classic Recipes" published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson, in London.

She has also published in Athens two collections of her food columns that became best sellers in Greece.

Her book about the The Cooking Of The Greek Islands, published by Houghton Mifflin, USA, in the fall of 2000 has proved to ne immensely successful.

She has appeared on Good Morning America, CBS, and other major and local TV stations and also taught at Macy's Degustibus, at the French Culinary Institute in New York, and many other cooking Schools around the country, promoting her books and authentic Mediterranean Cuisine.

Cooking was always her passion and she is an avid collector of cookbooks and recipes from all over the world. She has studied the history of ancient Greek and Mediterranean cuisines and has taken part in and given papers to many world conferences on food.

In 1997 she was invited to be the consultant -working with the chefs and developing the menu- for Molyvos, the new upscale Greek restaurant in New York (7th avenue at 55th street) which was awarded three stars by Ruth Reichl of the New York Times.

You can order her books by calling Cosmos Publishing,
tel : (201) 664-3494 USA

Kea

Aglaia currently lives on the island of Kea, where she conducts a cooking school.

The school, in the kitchen of Aglaia’s house on the Cycladic island of Kea, is located in a little valley not far from the sea. It is surrounded by olive and almond trees, a small vegetable garden and lots of wild and cultivated Mediterranean aromatic shrubs. Classes are held in the kitchen, and the lunches are served al fresco, under a canopy. There is a BBQ and a traditional wood-burning oven in the garden.

Kea is the island of the Cyclades closest to the Athens --from the airport, a 30-minute drive and then only 1 hour by ferry.

Price: 1695 US Dollar per person

USD 1695.00 is the cost of a full 8-day program. Shorter programs may be organized upon request. InfoHub discount coupons are accepted for groups of three or more persons coming through the same source. No classes are held in August.

More infromation:

http://www.infohub.com/vacation_schools/576.html

History > Photography

submitted by Estiator Magazine on 12.01.2006

The Mediterranean Pantry : Creating and Using Condiments and Seasonings, by Aglaia Kremezi.

Description
Binding: Hardcover
EAN: 9781885183026
ISBN: 188518302X
Number Of Items: 1
Book Pages: 192
Publication Date: 1994-01-09
Publisher: Artisan

Editorial Review of The Mediterranean Pantry : Creating and Using Condiments and Seasonings

In The Mediterranean Pantry, Aglaia Kremezi presents 70 recipes for condiments and seasoning mixtures from France, Italy, Spain, the Eastern Mediterranean, and North Africa. The chapters correspond to how these provisions are preserved--in bottles, boxes, and jars. The text is accompanied by 20 color photographs that demonstrate how to turn these items into elegant gifts.

The Mediterranean Pantry includes recipes for unusual and familiar condiments--preserves, flavored oils and vinegars, liqueurs, and spices using these products. Preserve colorful red, yellow, and green bell peppers in olive oil during the height of the season, and serve a tasty pasta sauce months later that you can make in minutes chopping the peppers and mixing with roasted garlic and olive oil. Or make a tart green tomato and mint relish before the first frost and enjoy it with roast lamb on a cold winter night.

The Mediterranean Pantry will help you infuse sunny Mediterranean flavors into meals all years long.

This delicious collection includes recipes for Preserved Lemons, Green Olives with Harissa and Orange, Green Fig Preserves, Fried Artichoke with Garlic in Olive Oil, Olive Oil with Truffles, and many other items with which to stock your pantry shelves. Many recipes are as simple as mixing several ingredients, with little or no cooking. In addition, a detailed list of mail-order sources ensures that even the most exotic ingredients will be available to all.

Biographical Information

Aglaia Kremezi


http://www.estiator.com

Aglaia Kremezi was born in Athens. She is a journalist, writer, photographer and food columnist for the Sunday Athens paper Kyriakatiki Eleftherotypia and the Greek edition of Votre Beaute magazine. She is also a contributing author for the Los Angeles Times, Gourmet magazine, BBC Good Food magazine, Bonne Appetit, and other publications.

Her first book, The Foods of Greece, published by Stewart, Tabori and Chang in New York, won the Julia Child "First Book" award, in April '94.

Her next two books, Mediterranean Pantry, and Mediterranean Hot, were both published by Artisan/Workman and later translated into Greek.

She is part of the team of Master Chefs --together with Roger Verger, Michel Roux, Richard Olney and others-- creating a small illustrated collection of Meze and Antipasti, for the series "Classic Recipes" published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson, in London.

She has also published in Athens two collections of her food columns that became best sellers in Greece.

Her book about the The Cooking Of The Greek Islands, published by Houghton Mifflin, USA, in the fall of 2000 has proved to ne immensely successful.

She has appeared on Good Morning America, CBS, and other major and local TV stations and also taught at Macy's Degustibus, at the French Culinary Institute in New York, and many other cooking Schools around the country, promoting her books and authentic Mediterranean Cuisine.

Cooking was always her passion and she is an avid collector of cookbooks and recipes from all over the world. She has studied the history of ancient Greek and Mediterranean cuisines and has taken part in and given papers to many world conferences on food.

In 1997 she was invited to be the consultant -working with the chefs and developing the menu- for Molyvos, the new upscale Greek restaurant in New York (7th avenue at 55th street) which was awarded three stars by Ruth Reichl of the New York Times.

You can order her books by calling Cosmos Publishing,
tel : (201) 664-3494 USA

Kea

Aglaia currently lives on the island of Kea, where she conducts a cooking school.

The school, in the kitchen of Aglaia’s house on the Cycladic island of Kea, is located in a little valley not far from the sea. It is surrounded by olive and almond trees, a small vegetable garden and lots of wild and cultivated Mediterranean aromatic shrubs. Classes are held in the kitchen, and the lunches are served al fresco, under a canopy. There is a BBQ and a traditional wood-burning oven in the garden.

Kea is the island of the Cyclades closest to the Athens --from the airport, a 30-minute drive and then only 1 hour by ferry.

Price: 1695 US Dollar per person

USD 1695.00 is the cost of a full 8-day program. Shorter programs may be organized upon request. InfoHub discount coupons are accepted for groups of three or more persons coming through the same source. No classes are held in August.

More infromation:

http://www.infohub.com/vacation_schools/576.html

History > Photography

submitted by Estiator Magazine on 12.01.2006

The Foods of Greece, by, Aglaia Kremezi.

The Foods of Greece will transport readers to the Greek islands and mainland with recipes collected from the entire country.

Mediterranean cuisine is widely touted for both its intense flavors and its nutritious value, and Greek food—with its abundance of vegetables, grains, fruit, fish, herbs, and spices—is perhaps the most savory and healthful of all.

The Foods of Greece is an outstanding selection of 135 regional dishes made from readily available ingredients. Includes recipes for such dishes as:

Artichoke, Carrot and Fava Bean Stew
Crayfish in Garlic and Walnut Sauce
Eggplant Pie with Walnuts
Lamb Stew with Quinces
plus many more that highlight Greece's rich culinary history!
Foods of Greece is an entertaining book to read, as well as an exceptional way of cooking!

Contents

Edesmata: The Foods of Greece
The Elements of Greek Food
Gods and Saints at the Table

Appetizers, Salads, and Egg Dishes
Simple Fish and Seafood
Meatless Meals and Vegetable Dishes
Making the Most of Meat
Breads, Biscuits, Phyllo, and Pasta
Desserts and Sweets
Appendix
Index

Biographical Information

Aglaia Kremezi


http://www.estiator.com

Aglaia Kremezi was born in Athens. She is a journalist, writer, photographer and food columnist for the Sunday Athens paper Kyriakatiki Eleftherotypia and the Greek edition of Votre Beaute magazine. She is also a contributing author for the Los Angeles Times, Gourmet magazine, BBC Good Food magazine, Bonne Appetit, and other publications.

Her first book, The Foods of Greece, published by Stewart, Tabori and Chang in New York, won the Julia Child "First Book" award, in April '94.

Her next two books, Mediterranean Pantry, and Mediterranean Hot, were both published by Artisan/Workman and later translated into Greek.

She is part of the team of Master Chefs --together with Roger Verger, Michel Roux, Richard Olney and others-- creating a small illustrated collection of Meze and Antipasti, for the series "Classic Recipes" published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson, in London.

She has also published in Athens two collections of her food columns that became best sellers in Greece.

Her book about the The Cooking Of The Greek Islands, published by Houghton Mifflin, USA, in the fall of 2000 has proved to ne immensely successful.

She has appeared on Good Morning America, CBS, and other major and local TV stations and also taught at Macy's Degustibus, at the French Culinary Institute in New York, and many other cooking Schools around the country, promoting her books and authentic Mediterranean Cuisine.

Cooking was always her passion and she is an avid collector of cookbooks and recipes from all over the world. She has studied the history of ancient Greek and Mediterranean cuisines and has taken part in and given papers to many world conferences on food.

In 1997 she was invited to be the consultant -working with the chefs and developing the menu- for Molyvos, the new upscale Greek restaurant in New York (7th avenue at 55th street) which was awarded three stars by Ruth Reichl of the New York Times.

You can order her books by calling Cosmos Publishing,
tel : (201) 664-3494

History > Photography

submitted by Estiator Magazine on 12.01.2006

Aglaia Kremezi.

Biographical Information

Aglaia Kremezi was born in Athens. She is a journalist, writer, photographer and food columnist for the Sunday Athens paper Kyriakatiki Eleftherotypia and the Greek edition of Votre Beaute magazine. She is also a contributing author for the Los Angeles Times, Gourmet magazine, BBC Good Food magazine, Bonne Appetitand other publications.

Her first book, The Foods of Greece, published by Stewart, Tabori and Chang in New York, won the Julia Child "First Book" award, in April '94.

Her next two books, Mediterranean Pantry, and Mediterranean Hot, were both published by Artisan/Workman and later translated into Greek.

She is part of the team of Master Chefs --together with Roger Verger, Michel Roux, Richard Olney and others-- creating a small illustrated collection of Meze and Antipasti, for the series "Classic Recipes" published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson, in London.

She has also published in Athens two collections of her food columns that became best sellers in Greece.

Her book about the The Cooking Of The Greek Islands, published by Houghton Mifflin, USA, in the fall of 2000 has proved to ne immensely successful.

She has appeared on Good Morning America, CBS, and other major and local TV stations and also taught at Macy's Degustibus, at the French Culinary Institute in New York, and many other cooking Schools around the country, promoting her books and authentic Mediterranean Cuisine.

Cooking was always her passion and she is an avid collector of cookbooks and recipes from all over the world. She has studied the history of ancient Greek and Mediterranean cuisines and has taken part in and given papers to many world conferences on food.

In 1997 she was invited to be the consultant -working with the chefs and developing the menu- for Molyvos, the new upscale Greek restaurant in New York (7th avenue at 55th street) which was awarded three stars by Ruth Reichl of the New York Times.

You can order her books by calling Cosmos Publishing,
tel : (201) 664-3494

http://www.estiator.com

History > Photography

submitted by SUN HERALD on 06.01.2006

Zucchini. A vegie to grill, fry, or roast.

THE SUN-HERALD November 6, 2005 , p. 78.

Zucchini is ideal for small gardens and its versatile, delicious fruit and edible flowers are a gourmet’s delight, writes ABC Gardening Australia’s Josh Byrne.

ZUCCHINI (Cucurbitapepo) is a great vegetable for the home garden. It’s quick and easy to grow and extremely versatile to use in the kitchen. Closely related to pumpkins and melons, zucchini is more compact and is well suited to small gardens. Zucchini is a type of summer squash. When picked young it is referred to as a courgette and when left to balloon out it is called a marrow


Getting started

Zucchini can be planted all year in the tropics, in all but winter in the subtropics and in spring and summer in cool and temperate regions. It is best grown from seed because the seedlings resent root disturbance. If you do buy seedlings, take care not to injure the fragile roots when planting.
Sow seeds 60 centimetres apart in a sunny sheltered spot and allow 1.5 metres between rows for easy access. Three or four plants provide enough zucchini for a family of four. Plant every four weeks to ensure a steady supply through summer and autumn.
Varieties of zucchini vary according to plant size, colour and shape of the fruit. They are either cylindrical or round and range from yellow through to green and black. Good varieties to try include Blackjack with prolific, very dark green fruit on a compact bush, the dark green Ambassador, excellent for small gardens, and Golden with bright yellow fruit.

How to plant

Zucchini does best in a neutral, well-drained soil with added organic matter. Compost or aged
cow manure is perfect. If you have heavy soil, plant into mounds to aid drainage. Sow two to three seeds per mound and thin out the weakest plants to prevent crowding. Compact varieties can also be grown in large pots.

Caring for zucchini

Regular watering is essential as plants soon wilt in dry conditions. They normally recover but it does make them vulnerable to blossom end rot.
Drip irrigation is best as overhead watering increases the chance of powdery mildew Regulady apply organic liquid fertiliserto ensure strong growth and a good yield.
Plants start to crop four to five weeks after sowing and continue to produce fruit for several months if healthy. Harvest fruit when they are 10 to 20 centimetres long, leaving one centimetre of stem attached.

In the kitchen

Zucchini is a fabulously versatile vegetable and tastes fantastic when steamed, char-grilled, stir-fried or roasted. Growing your own zucchini means you’ll have access to its wonderful flowers, which are rarely available in shops. Even if you do manage to procure them, they’re generally quite expensive, which is another bonus to growing them yourself.

Both male and female flowers are edible, although the female flowers are often left to develop into fruit. The male flowers are borne on thin stems compared with the short swollen base of the female flowers. Harvest the flowers during the middle of the day when they have fully opened.

One of the most popular ways to use zucchini flowers in cooking is to stuff them with ricotta and lightly fry them.

They’re very delicate so be very gentle when handling them. To prepare them, first remove the stamen and pistil from inside each flower and lightly brush the flowers to remove any soil.

Season 300 grams of ricotta cheese with sea salt and ground black pepper.

Place a couple of teaspoons of the mixture into each flower and gently twist the petal tips to enclose the filling.

Beat an egg lightly and dip each flower into it then dip them into flour, just enough to coat the flower lightly.

Fry lightly for a few minutes in olive oil in a medium frying pan.

Turn them at the first sign of browning and don’t allow the flour to burn.

Serve warm with a fresh tomato sauce.

History > Photography

submitted by National Centre For Hellenic Studies & Research on 02.01.2006

Greeks of the world diaspora. A Map.

The "greeks abroad" total 5,607,950. The General Secretariat for Greeks Abroad has collated some information on the Hellenes of the Diaspora.

For a report of this information click for PDF

WorldpopoGrks.pdf


Greeks in Diaspora exist in all the continets of the world.

While the majority settled in the United States, which has a Greek population of 3 million, figures from the General Secretariat for Greeks Abroad indicate 92 destination countries where Greeks have settled.

This startling number indicates something of the Greek character for adventure and new challenges as well as reflecting the turbulence of the past insofar as world and national events have compelled many Greeks to look for opportunities outside of Greece.

The second largest Greek population remains that of Australia with 700,000 Greeks, followed by Germany (354,500), Canada (350,000), Ukraine (250,000), Britain (212,000), the Russian Federation (150,000), Georgia (120,000) and South Africa (120,000).

The range of population sizes, however, is not limited to only large numbers. Populations as small as 50 exist in Tunisia and Senegal with the Congo having the smallest of all Greek populations of just 10.

Latin American countries represent 13 of the destination countries to which Greeks have settled, while the number of Asian nations is 17*. African nations represent 27 of the listed nations with South Africa having by far the largest Greek population at 120,000.

Europe represents 28 of the 92 Diaspora Greek communities, the most of any region, with a combined Greek population of 1,286,740.

Of these, 354,500 settled in Germany which received large numbers of immigrant workers during its post-WWII economic boom in the last half of the 20th century.

Substantial numbers of Greeks in the Ukraine, Georgia and Russian Federation attest to the long history of Greek settlement there with robust Diapsora communities surrounding the Black Sea (Pontians) and in cities such as Odessa, Tashkent.

*The definition of Asia used by the General Secretariat for Greeks Abroad is not the conventional definition, thus countries such as Israel, Saudi Arabia and Kazakstan are grouped together with Hong Kong and Japan under the heading of Asia.

*It should be noted that the NCHSR does not gather this information directly but collates it from various external census gathering sources such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS).

Visit the National Centre For Hellenic Studies & Research web-page:

http://www.latrobe.edu.au/nhc/home/home.htm

History > Photography

submitted by George Kanarakis on 01.01.2006

Miltiades Bidzanis. Michael De Diar.

15.08.1835 — 13.06.1920

One day in Port Pire, South Australia in mid - 1875, in a large store made available by the Whitings company for the townspeople to hold meetings, concerts and church services, during an especially long and tiring sermon a rather short, stocky, middle—aged man of southern Mediterranean appearance jumped up from his makeshift seat, dropped a coin noisily on a brandy cask and boomed at full volume in his distinctive marriner’s voice: “Time and tide wait for no man!”. That man was Miltiades Bidzanis.

But if tides rule the lives of seamen, surely the times shape the lives of many more people.

Miltiades Bidzanis belongs to the latter case. His life was definitely shaped by the historical circumstances and events
around the time of his birth. He was born on 15 August 1835 of a Kytherian father and a Cretan mother at Palia Roumata in
the region of Hania on the westernmost side of Crete, although Cerigo (Kythera) is stated on his naturalisation certificate. Surrounded by mountains, Palia Roumata itself is a small picturesque village situated in a valley of olive groves and grapevines, where Bidzanis families still reside today.

At the time of Miltiades Bidzanis’ birth, however, the island was still under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, although the mainland of Greece had already been liberated for five years.

The years around his birth and as he grew to manhood were particularly tumultuous because of the intolerable conditions of subjection the islanders faced and, especially later, because of the lack of application by the Ottoman authorities of the more lenient terms of the 1858 edict which had been granted to the people of Crete after they rose in another revolt in that very year. In parallel, taxes continually increased, bringing the subjected Cretans to desperate conditions.

As a result persecutions, imprisonments and murders of the conquered islanders were quite frequent at the hands of their harsh rulers, sometimes for insignificant reasons, although in some cases as retribution for the killing of Ottomans who behaved callously towards the Christian inhabitants.

It is not surprising that this turbulent period in which Miltiades Bidzanis was born and raised influenced the course of his entire life.

Because of the conditions in which he grew up he had little schooling but was noted for his keen interest in the sea, like most other islanders. In fact he had his first taste of life at sea when he was only nine years old and, following the quest for adventure that had for centuries called young Greek men to the open seas, he smuggled himself on board a ship as a stowaway! He hid in the bread locker of a ship (where there was plenty of food), but luck was against him for he was discovered and made to return home.

His ignominious return did not deter him and as soon as he could, when he was still quite young, he became a deck-hand, learning anlong other skills how to manoeuvre the sails and the rigging against the winds and the tides. During these years and later as a seaman he was able to travel widely, and gained an extensive knowledge of the Mediterranean, especially of its eastern area. He is still remembered today for the fascinating stories he used to recount about the many different ports and places he had visited on his voyages to the Holy Land, Cyprus, Egypt and elsewhere.

But this early life at sea did not only endow Bidzanis with a mariner’s valuable knowledge, it also provided him with the opportunity to reveal his natural courage and his eager defiance against the despised Ottoman overlords. His grandson Alan relates how his mother Ella Melissa (wife of Bidzanis’ seventh child Leonidas George) had heard her father-in-law reminiscing about his involvement in rescuing British soldiers during the Crimean War, hiding them on his ship and secretly getting them to British controlled areas, such as the Ionian Islands and Malta.

By the age of twenty-five he was already an experienced and confident seaman and also a proud young man. According to a family story, when returning to his village in Crete to visit his parents and relatives, Bidzanis was involved in the murder of an Ottoman Turk. This incident proved to be a turning point in his life.

As was to be expected, the authorities targeted the entire family, seeking to arrest and punish the men especially. Faced with this danger, the only way to escape death was to flee. So, Miltiades and his brother Hariton (also known as Harilaos) left in secret for Kythera, the most southerly and most easterly of the Ionian Islands, which were under British rule. His brother eventually reached Smyrna, Asia Minor - an ancient Greek city noted for its thriving commerce and its high level of culture —where, after a successful life as a merchant and hotelier, he died in 1906. But before they took their different paths, the two brothers promised each other that one day they would meet again, a promise which was never fulfilled.
However, the life of a fugitive did not suit Miltiades Bidzanis. In a very short time, answering the call of the sea and wishing to put more space between himself and the Ottomans, we find him signing on the ship Sir John Lawrence for Australia.

He arrived in Port Adelaide on Friday 30 August 1861 and a few days later he signed off the ship, in this way becoming only the second recorded Greek in South Australia.

For the first eleven and a half years he made Port Augusta his home, working as a seaman on ships in the coastal trade and eventually acquiring his own small ketch.

Through hard work and long experience as well as the natural instinct of a true mariner, he soon mastered the secrets of the treacherous coastal waters and learned how to steer the ships safely against the buffeting winds of the area, in the process
gaining his Master’s Certificate which enabled him to navigate in the Spencer Gulf.

Sometime during those years he also changed his name into Michael De Diar, possibly to better cover his tracks. Family information passed down through generations asserts that his new surname is linked to the nickname “elafi” (deer) which he earned when he still lived in his native village in Crete because of his prowess in running and jumping. The word “Diar” is a mis-spelt form of “deer” and the “De” possibly represents the Greek abbreviation of his father’s name Demetrios. Over the years his name has appeared in a variety of spellings, such as De Diar, DeDiar DeDear, de’Dear, deDear and de Dear. After 1920 the family, in an effort to standardise their name, modified it into “de Dear”.

Interestingly, the name Bidzanis had similarly been a nickname given to the family after a forebear who spoke with a lisp. He, unable to say the word “vizaini” (suckle), had pronounced it “bidzaini”, and thus Bidzainis, later Bidzanis, had become the name by which the whole family was known. In Smyrna, it appears that Hariton again changed the name from Bidzanis to Bizanis, and this is still the surname carried by his descendants through his son Elias (Leon) in Australia, though now spelt Bizannes.

In May 1873 Miltiades Bidzanis decided to move to Port Pire because, the area having been surveyed in 1871, and the township gazetted in 1872, the government had started selling land there.

Port Pine was already quite a busy harbour, having been discovered in 1846 and used after that by the pastoralists of the area, and so it would obviously provide work for a master mariner.

He settled in a part of Port Pine called Solomontown, named after Emmanuel Solomon, one of South Australia’s most successful merchants. Port Pire itself was growing rapidly in the year he arrived, and by the end of that year an unofficial head-count showed that 160 people (forty-seven of them children) had taken up residence there.

In Port Pine he married Elizabeth J.M., whose surname is unknown but who was reputedly a French migrant, and she bore him three sons.Very little information has survived about this marriage or about their children, except that two of the sons were named Ernest Charles and Harilaos Richard, while for the third we know only the initials C.E.H. Elizabeth’s headstone still marks her burial place in the Port Pire cemetery, informing us that she was forty-one years old when she died on 27th January 1876.

About two and a half years after the death of his first wife, on 16 May 1878 Bidzanis remarried, this time to Florence Edith Mary Davidson, a twenty-one year old Australian-born woman from Geelong, Victonia. They were married at St Paul’s church in Port Pire, and during their thirty-nine years of married life they had ten children, six sons and four daughters. All the children were born and educated in Port Pire and each was given at least one Greek name.

In order of birth they were:
Athena Ellen (d. 1967), Cleopatra Emily (d. 1975), Cleanthe (Clyanthe) Edith (d. 1970), Constantine Theophilos (d. 1971), Demetrios Harilaos (d. 1974), Hector John (d. 1959), Leonidas George (d. 1963), the twins Clarence Andreas Themistocles (d. 1966) and Clement Spynidon Miltiades (d. 1974), and Gwendolin Olga (d. 1974) named after the then Queen of Greece, Olga.

Port Pire with its new settlement and its rapidly expanding trade succeeded in keeping Bidzanis for the largest part of his nearly sixty years in Australia. His abilities assured his success both as a pilot and as a master mariner, not only gaining him respect among his fellow-seamen but also helping him to acquire a second sailing vessel, for which he employed another skipper.

With his two boats, the Normanville and the Amelia, he carried on a successful and profitable life of coastal trading, loading his vessels with wheat, tinned meat and other cargo which he transported mainly to Port Augusta and the Spencer Gulf in general, returning with limestone for the Port Pire smelters. In this way he was even able to employ his sons as well - a valuable training experience which qualified them to subsequently earn their Master’s Certificates and moreover for two or three of them to become Masters of their own vessels.

In general Bidzanis’ life and career, especially in Port Pire, proved fulfilling and rewarding, despite the harsh conditions of his job at sea. In fact, so settled had he become in Port Pine with his new wife, his young and expanding family and his established work at sea, that in 1883 he finally made the decision to become a citizen of South Australia (then called the Province of South Australia). His naturalisation was granted on 16 July 1883, making him the first Greek to be naturalised in Port Pire, and the fifth in South Australia.

But gradually the years passed and the conditions of his life changed, as well. His children grew and several of them decided to follow their own paths and move to other places. One of the twins, Clarence, was the first to leave, settling in Sydney some time after 1910, and he was soon joined there by the other twin, Clement. Before long Clyanthe went to live with her two brothers in Sydney, and eventually Leonidas as well. But Leonidas was not there for many years before World War I broke out. He answered the call to serve his King and the Empire and joined the Australian Army, returning to Sydney only after his service as a bombardier and as a courier ended.

Once the twins were settled in Sydney, and around the time of the outbreak of World War I, they saved enough money to bring their parents over to the eastern coast. Bidzanis’ powers had begun to fail some years earlier and, despite his long and enduring love for the sea, he was forced to accept that the time had now come for him to retire. Unable to spend his days on the sea, Pont Pire, the town which had become such a large part of his life and had fostered his whole family, could not keep him in its fold any more, and so he and his wife went to join their children in Sydney.

First they lived in Redfenn, and then, wishing to be closer to the water, they moved to Coogee. A very old man now he passed his days by visiting Greek shops where he could talk in his native language. But still he could not resist the sea and, since he could no longer work as a seaman, he contented himself with trips on Sydney harbour and from Circular Quay to Manly on the ferry.

However, despite the quiet and enjoyable life he shared with his two sons and his daughter in Sydney, Port Pire had definitely carved a niche in his heart. So, after about two years in Sydney, yielding to his innermost desire the old mariner made what would be his last journey to his old port. Demetrios, one of their sons who had remained in Port Pire, sent the money for Bidzanis and his wife to return there by train.This time, however, Bidzanis came to Port Pire not as the only Greek resident but as one of a growing community.

By then Bidzanis’ wife, Florence, was ill with dnopsy, and Demetnios took her into his home to cane for her. She died there, on 26 May 1917, in her son’s arms, sixty years old, and after nearly forty years of married life.

On her death, Demetnios then took Bidzanis into his home, where he spent the remaining years of his life.

He died in Port Pine on 13 June 1920 at the age of eighty-five, after nearly sixty years in Australia, the land of the South.
Sadly, he did not live quite long enough to see his compatriots in that town grow to such a number that in 1924 they were able to form the first Greek Community in the whole of South Australia, and the following year to consecrate the first Greek Orthodox church in Port Pire.

The death ofMiltiades Bidzaiiis, or under his Australian name Michael De Diar, sealed a long and fnuitful life during which, with his determination, fortitude and hand work, he had succeeded in fulfilling all the goals he had set out for himself.

All, though, but one.That was the promise he had made many years before to be reunited with his brother Hariton.This is the only promise, a dream in his life, he did not manage to make come true.

It is a very poignant epilogue that the promise the two brothers were unable to keep, Hariton’s son Elias (Leon) Bizanis, whose descendants today live mainly in New South Wales, attempted to fulfil.

One day in the early 1900's Bidzanis had chanced to meet a Greek sailor working on a merchant vessel which had docked at Port Pire, who knew his long—lost brother in Smyrna. Obtaining the address from him, Bidzanis wrote his brother a letter full of brotherly love, describing his new life in Australia and expressing his deep desire to meet him again one day. So, after the Asia Minor Catastrophe and the destruction of his native Smyrna, in 1923 Leon Bizannes, later to become editor and manager of the Sydney Greek-language newspaper To Ethnikon Vema, (The National Tribune), travelled to Port Pire in search of his uncle, about whom he had heard so much from his father. On his arrival he sadly discovered that he was too late, for his uncle, Miltiades Bidzanis, had died three years earlier.


From,

In The Wake Of Odysseus. Portraits of Greek Settlers in Australia.

George Kanarakis

RMIT University
124 La Trobe Street
Melbourne 3000

Greek-Australian Archives Publications

1997

History > Photography

submitted by George Kanarakis on 30.12.2005

Harry Corones, Jim Corones and their sister, Charleville, ca. 1914

Harry (Haralambos) Corones

1883—1972

On 14 June 1965 people poured in and out of the Hotel Corones in Charleville, Queensland all day. “The barmaids were run off their feet, the telephones ran hot and the local telegraph boy nearly wore out his bike”. Drinks were on the house for everyone, and everybody in the town was celebrating. The reason? The much-loved Harry Corones (or “Poppa” to everyone who knew him) had that day been made a Member of the Order of the British Empire, (M.B.E.) in recognition of “his remarkable services to the people of Western Queensland over a great number of years”.

Sometime during that day a jovial and exuberant Harry, now eighty-two years old but still with brown eyes twinkling beneath his curly white hair, may have paused to remember that fateful day on 10 August 1907 when, without speaking a word of English and at twenty-three years of age already responsible for his twelve-year-old nephew Demetrios (Jim), he landed in Sydney from his native island of Kythera.

Harry (Haralambos) Corones was born in the village of Frylingianika, Kythera on 17 September 1883 to Panayiotis Coroneos, a fisherman, and his wife Stamatia. Harry’s mother, Stamatia, was a member of the Frylingos family, an extended family so large that the village in which many of them lived had been named after them, and one which was very close-knit - something which would help Harry later in life.
Little is known of Harry’s childhood and youth on the island until 1904 when, at the age of twenty-one, he began two years military service as a first-aid-orderly attached to a military hospital. This part of his life completed, a decision had to be made about which direction his future would take. On the small island of Kythera there were few opportunities other than fishing or tending the family’s plot of land, and so the family reached the conclusion that Harry would have to emigrate. Moreover, it was decided that he should take with him his young nephew Demetrios, in the hope that they would both be able to build a better life overseas.

Harry’s first choice was America but for medical reasons his application was rejected and so his hopes turned to Australia where, after all, his mother had relatives, in Brisbane. And so it was that the following year Harry and Jim embarked on the long trip towards an unknown life in the foreign land.

When the ship sailed into Sydney harbour and docked, Harry and Jim disembarked with few possessions other than their meagre luggage and Harry’s pocketful of change, with no English at all between them and so their real adventure began.

Harry’s immediate concern was to find work. He had the name of a Kytherian, Mr Aroney, who might give him a job
and so, leaving Jim on his own on the wharf to look after the luggage, Harry set off in search of his fellow-islander.

Despite being a total stranger in the city, he finally found Aroney who did indeed give him work in his fish shop. But Aroney had nowhere for Harry to stay and so finding accommodation for himself and Jim was Harry’s next priority.

Walking in the streets near the docks looking for a room was a daunting task when he could neither read the street signs nor seek information from passers-by, but eventually he came across a fellow-Greek who was cleaning the window of a shop. Harry helped him to complete his task and was introduced to the owner of the shop, who turned out to have a place where Harry and Jim could stay.

Evening was now falling, so Harry, elated by his achievements, rushed back to the wharf to collect Jim who by this time was feeling lost and afraid.The hours that Harry had been away had seemed very long to young Jim who had been unable to buy anything to eat or drink, or to converse with the strangers who had tried to help him.

This long day over, their new life began. But it was to be a hard life in Sydney with Harry working extremely long hours gutting and filleting the fish and opening oysters, with Jim working there, too, on the weekends and in the school holidays.

After about a year had passed, Harry decided that they should move on to Brisbane where, after all, he had relatives on his mother’s side.

This was to be a fortuitous move, for the Frylingos brothers (or Freeleagus as they were known in Australia) not only gave Harry a job in their oyster saloon on George Street but would help him in a venture which wotild be the start of a long and very successful business career.

At the oyster saloon Harry continued to work long hours, yet such was his care and concern for Jim that he lodged him with an Australian family, named Ballard, where he would not only be looked after but also improve his English, and then sent him to a school in Bundaberg.

But a life as an oyster opener, working for others, was not what Harry had in mind for his future. He wanted to start a business on his own and began to think about where this should be.

In the end he decided on Charleville, an inland town in south—west Queensland, six hundred and seventy kilometres from Brisbane, which was not only the centre of its region but where an empty cafe, owned by a Greek named Theo Comino, was for sale, With a loan of £120 from the Freeleagus brothers, Harry bought the cafe and so in l909, just a year after they had arrived in Brisbane, Harry and Jim set off for Charleville - another step into the unknown for both of them, but for Harry a journey to the town which would be his home for the rest of his life.

In those days, Charleville was a remote, hot, dry and dusty but thriving cattle—country town with saw mills, a meatworks and a few other small factories. With the railway running through, it was an important rail terminal, but even more significant for the traders in the town was the fact that it was a main stopping point for bullock trains and camel caravans, as well as for the many drovers who were moving their stock from one part of the State to another, and even interstate.

The cafe on Alfred Street which Harry had bought needed much work, but from the start he ran it in the way he would run all his businesses in his long business career of about sixty years, offering good service, good food and warm hospitality.

The following year, Harry went into partnership with another fellow—Greek named Megalocominos in another cafe, on Wills Street, which Harry ran with his usual hard work, efficiency and attention to detail, It was a bigger cafe than the first one, but its importance to Harry lay not in its size, but in the fact that it was here that he met Paddy Cryan, a travelling salesman from Perkins Brewery in Brisbane.

Impressed as he was with the way Harry ran the cafe, Paddy astutely recognised in Harry the qualities of a good hotel owner. He suggested that Harry should move into the hotel business and take on the lease of the Hotel Charleville which had become vacant, At first Harry was reluctant to make this move because he knew nothing about the hotel business, and moreover because he did not have any money. But Cryan continued to persuade him and to assure him that the brewery would finance the deal and train him in the business.

Harry discussed it at length with Jim, and in the end the decision was made — Harry Corones would become a hotelier, and Jim would accompany him in this venture. On 7 October 1912 Harry signed the lease on the Hotel Charleville on the corner of Alfred and Wills Streets for five years at a rent of £ 6 per week.

That year, 1912, was very significant for Harry for not only did it mark the beginning of a long career as a hotelier (the first Greek hotelier in Australia), but in June of that year, committing himself to Australia as his new homeland, Harry had become a naturalised Australian citizen.

Harry, with no knowledge of the hotel trade and with somewhat broken English, but assisted by Jim, threw himself into his new venture. The business was going well and Harry’s thoughts turned to his future as a family man.

Early in 1914 he left Charleville to go to Sydney for a few months, and there, on 29 April, he married Eftyhia Phocas at Holy Trinity church in Sydney. Eftyhia was the fourth of the six daughters of Reverend Serapheini Phocas and his wife Maria. Reverend Phocas was the first accredited resident Greek Orthodox priest in New South Wales (he had arrived in Sydney in March 1899) and only the second in Australia, and was a well-educated, scholarly man who spoke several languages fluently. Although he had been born on the Gallipoli Peninsula he had lived in Jerusalem, Crete, Alexandria, Port Said and Rhodes, and with this background he had brought up all his daughters to be well-educated, refined and with charming personalities. Apart from the youngest, Helen, who remained unmarried, all the other daughters eventually married well established members of the Greek communities in different States.

Yet joy would be mixed with tragedy, for early in the trip in Harry’s absence the hotel burnt down. Harry returned to Charleville with his new wife and the hotel was soon rebuilt. On 27 June Harry signed a new lease, this time for ten years, and at £540 per year.

The new hotel was bigger and more luxurious than its predecessor and Harry settled down to run it, assisted as always byJirn and now helped by Eftyhia, with his usual dedication to hard work and excellent service.

Running the hotel, though, was not without its unusual aspects. For example, boundary riders used to ride their horses into the bar, and at times there would be almost as many horses there as people, until Harry changed the doors and made them too narrow for a horse and its rider to pass through!

At the same time as running his hotel, though, Harry’s mind was on expanding his business interests as well as on providing new facilities for his fellow-townsfolk.

He formed a new partnership with three others, McWha, Crowley and Klass (though he would buy them out on 1 August 1919), and on 5 April 1915 they opened Charleville’s first cinema, the Excelsior, in premises at the rear of the Hotel Charleville. To this they brought not only silent movies (with two screens and the equipment set up in such a way that the films could be shown either indoors or outdoors according to the season) but also vaudeville acts from Sydney and Brisbane.

These were much appreciated by the town’s residents as well as by all who passed through, but what they admired most of all was the generator and electric lighting plant Harry had imported from London which lit both the cinema and the hotel — an alliazing innovation for the outback in those days.

Harry’s life was very busy, for two months later (3 June) he took a ten-year lease on the Paris Cafe in the same block as the hotel, although on 4 September 1921 he would sub-let it to his cousin Peter Locos, for £1,700.

By now Harry was not only a successful businessman and a family man (his first child, Peter, had been born on 23 February 1915), but he was a respected and much—liked member of the Charleville community, admired for his boundless energy and his unfailing sense of humour.

Recognition of his business acumen and his popularity came first in 1916 when he was invited to serve on the Charleville Hospital Board. Then in 1919 he was a member of the original committee of the Ambulance Centre and some time after that he was invited to serve on the Fire Brigade Board. He gave himself wholeheartedly to these activities, yet still he wanted to do more to help end the town’s isolation.

His inspiration for this came in 1919 when, on a flight from England to Australia, Sir Keith and Sir Ross Smith made a landing at Charleville for fuiel and urgently needed repairs.
Harry entertained the two aviators as his guests (naturally) while repairs were carried out on the plane and it was refuelled from four-gallon petrol tins. Overwhelmed by the hospitality
they received for three months and the splendid farewell dinner which Harry provided, the two aviators offered to take Jim up in their plane.Though very nervous, Jim went for a flight over Charleville and the surrounding countryside, seeing the vastness of his new homeland from the air for the first time, and being the envy of many other young men in the town!

The spectacle of a plane landing at Charleville fired Harry’s imagination as a way to end Charleville’s remoteness, and he became passionately interested in the fledgeling aviation industry in Australia.

When Sir Hudson Fysh and other men of foresight decided to form an airline, which they would name Qantas (Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services), several of their meetings were held in Harry’s hotel, and it was at one of these meetings that, at Harry’s suggestion, inspired by the classical mythology of his native Greece, they gave the Greek names Perseus, Pegasus, Atalanta, Hermes and Heppomenes to five of their first seven aircraft. When the company was launched in 1920 Harry Corones was one of the original shareholders of the infant airline with one hundred one-pound shares. Qantas’ first scheduled service was from Charleville to Cloncurry on 2 November 1922, and picnic hampers sent out to the planes became a regular part of Harry’s life. Many years later, Sir Hudson Fysh would write in a letter to Corones dated 10 July 1971, with much affection: “I want to see you again, great, and long friend and supporter that you have been, and to recall some of the old times long passed when the world was younger, simpler, and you used to bring out the morning tea.Yes, Qantas’ first caterer. And think what it has grown to today”.

In 1 930, when Harry’s sons Peter and Alexander would go to school in Ipswich, Harry sent them there on Heppomenes as a sign of his faith in outback aviation.
In the meantime Harry and Jim decided to branch out and buy a hotel in another town, choosing Quilpie as the place of their expansion. Quiilpie, dusty and dry, was a smaller town than Charleville with only a few shops, a police station, a couirt house and lock-up, a small hospital and some houses, about two hundred and ten kilometres to the west, in opal country. The railway had reached there in 1917, and Quilpie became a rail terminal.

Harry and Jim saw the potential in this small town and on 19 August 1921 Harry bought the single-storey wooden Quilpie Hotel for £ 2,935. Now the close working partnership was to be severed for, while they remained business partners and best friends, Jim was to go to Quilpie to run the hotel there. Soon Jim’s brother Harry, known as “young Harry”, came over to join him in the running of the hotel, and he was to learn from jim everything that Jim in turn had learned from his uncle Harry.

Soon, however, Harry’s lease on the Hotel Charleville would be due to expire and he began to ma ke plans for the future, drawing on the experience he had gained so far. This would nclude the recollection of the time when, to help the people who had come from miles around to attend Charlevjlle’s annual picnic races, Harry had set up a long row of temporary hessian bathrooms -and some wag had set fire to them, at peak bathtime. In no time at all a large crowd had gathered to watch!

While the Hotel Charleville was now one of the best in the Queensland outback, his dream was to have a hotel which would be by far the best in Queensland outside Brisbane, and equal to any in that State capital.

Six days after the lease ran out (3 July 1924) Harry purchased with Jim the Norman Hotel, a one—storey ramshackle place dating from about 1895, which stood a block south of the Hotel Charleville on the corner of Wills and Galatea Streets. They also bought the rest of the land in that block to Edward Street, standing almost opposite the town hall.

Harry brought in a well-known, prize-winning architect, William Hodgen junior, and together they planned the Hotel Corones which would be the fulfilment of Harry’s dreams and Hodgen’s major single work, as well as the highlight of his career. Using a local builder, George Baker, and giving preference to local men on a day-labour basis, the hotel was built in four stages and took five years to complete. Work first began at the south end of the block, the opposite end to the Norman Hotel, and the first two stages were in reinforced concrete as Harry was well aware of the fire danger connected with wooden structures.

While the planning and the initial stages of this hotel were progressing, at the same time Harry and Jim had more plans for Quilpie. At Jim’s suggestion they bought a block of land on Main Street in the small town centre and there built the Imperial Hotel — a wooden building but Quilpie’s first two-storey structure. The hotel opened for business in 1925 and once more the high standard of a Corones Hotel became known throughout the area. It was also the first building in Quilpie to have electricity, a generator being brought over from Charleville. For a time, Harry and Jim also operated the first picture show in Quilpie, next to the Quilpie Hotel.

Disaster would strike however soon after the opening of the Imperial Hotel when in late January 1929 Harry and Jim’s original purchase in Quilpie, the Quilpie Hotel, burnt down, destroying the cinema at the same time.

Learning a lesson from this, in the same year they completely rebuilt the hotel, with two floors and in brick and concrete. This was the town’s first building constructed in anything other than wood and it was known affectionately by all as “The Brick”.

As the building of the Hotel Corones in Charleville progressed, the Norman Hotel was finally demolished and the last two stages of the new hotel were completed in brick. Such was the care which had been taken in planning the schedule of construction of the Hotel Corones that trading was able to continue throughout all that time.

In 1929, after five years of planning and construction, the magnificent two-storey white Hotel Corones with its sixty-three metre frontage on Wills Street was completed, rising “phoenix-like on the site of the old Norman Hotel”. Harry had envisaged, and achieved, a hotel which no other in the State surpassed and which no other in a country town could equal.

Built at a cost of, £ 50,000, it contained a lounge and writing room, a dining-room for a hundred and fifty people, a private and a public bar, a barber’s shop and, attached to the hotel, a magnificent ballroom capable of seating three hundred and twenty people at a banquet, while upstairs were bathrooms, about forty single and double bedrooms each with french doors opening to a verandah (the double rooms also had private bathrooms) and an upstairs louinge.

Nor was size the only impressive featuire of the Hotel Corones for the interior was decorated and furnished with nothing but luxury in mind and with exquisite attention to detail. Floors were of gleaming parquet and imported white marble, ceilings were exquisitely corniced, and coloured leadlight windows and doors, even a leadhight telephone booth, complemented silky oak panelling.

The hotel’s brochure published at the time gives detailed description:

“From the red and white cement footpath one steps into the Lounge, through widely—welcoming swinging doors — to find comfort awaiting. A cool, white marble floor seems to reflect the whiteness of the ceiling, where huge fans turn unceasingly to keep the temperature right in the heat of the summer, and in the winter time, wood fires make for warmth and comfort. Gleaming copper-topped tables throw back reflections on the flower-laden crystal vases, ever a feature of this room. Deep leather lounges and chairs are provided, where one may rest and entertain, and a door leads to a well—fitted writing room and telephone booth.....

The dining-room of Hotel Gorones is situated on the ground floor, and opens out through long folding glass doors into a piazza, which gives an impression of coolness and space....

A very modern and luxurious Public Bar forms one of the extra special features of this hotel. With the Roman mosaic floor, and time egg-shell mottled tiled walls and counters, the Bar is tinted in the faintest of pastel shades of blue and cream, and an air of coolness pervades this spacious room.

More than usual attention has been paid to time planning and furnishing of the Hotel Gorones bathrooms, and time best of modern equipment has been installed. Hot and cold baths and showers from running bore water are obtainable at any hour. The scrupulous cleanliness shining from the white porcelain baths adds to the personal comfort of each guest....

The bedrooms are furnished throughout in maple or sycamore, with spacious wardrobes, large mirrors, and writing tables. Soft, deep-piled carpets tone harmoniously with the furnishings, and from each double room one enters a luxurious private bathroom, mosaic floored, the walls tiled in shades agreeing with the colouring of the furniture and furnishings of the bedroom attached, where one may enjoy the delights of either a hot or cold bath....

To enjoy a quiet smoke, read, or a game of cards, one seeks the beautiful lounge upstairs. In this room and embossed ceiling in deep cream looks down on a polished floor, in which brown and cream boards alternate. The room is lined with French polished oak and a beautiful fireplace breaks the evenness of one wall. Comfort is the keynote here, and deep into velvet upholstered chairs time visitor sinks. Tables amid smokers’ stands in rosewood lend a deeper tone to the greys amid blues, which predominate in the rugs amid upholstering. Soft lights amid a perfect quietness make this room very dcsirable When the westerly winds turn Charleville into an Arctic region, log fires are lit in this room, transforming it into a snug retreat, beautifully warm and comfortable”


At the same time excellent service and catering were to be the hallmark of the hotel:

“An office staff ever courteous amid well-informed, is in attendance in one part of the lounge, amid deft attendants dispense hospitality when required.....

A capable, efficient staff pays attention to every tiny detail, and the most particular can have their every need supplied. A chef well versed in his art, serves up dishes to satisfy the most critical epicure, and every skill is employed to secure an appetising amid dainty effect. Iced dishes for hot days, and fans whirling unceasingly, make life in time Far West pleasant at this hotel, and brings a satisfied friendliness to those who mutually enjoy it...... ...

The best brands of liquors arc supplied, and the service unexcelled. A refrigerator keeps the drinks at just the degree of coolness individual taste requires, and the drinks being the very best obtainable, the Bar of the Hotel Corones depicts generally a very happy gathering. Bright, genial attendants, who seem to anticipate each client’s wishes, do much to add to the popularity of these extremely pleasant surroundings....

Every kind of liquid refreshment is stocked, in every degree of coolness, and no drink, however rare, is beyond the reach of the capable management”.


Pristine white starched damask tablecloths and napkins as well as the finest silver cutlery Harry could find were always used, while sparkling glassware and crystal vases filled with fresh flowers completed the picture.

This luxurious hotel, of which he used to say,”I built it, and the bank”, immediately became the gathering place for people from miles around and its reputation for elegance, luxury and fine service spread far and wide. But it was Harry’s personality which added the crowning touch to the hotel’s reputation, for he was the perfect host. His warm and welcoming hospitality knew no bounds, and his joy for living radiated to all around him. Moreover he was a keen sportsman, and loved to take hotel guests shooting, golfing, swimming or just exploring the surrounding countryside.

Many were the distinguished guests who stayed at the Hotel Corones throughout the following decades, one of the earliest being the aviator Amy Johnson who made Charleville a stopping point on her epic flight from Britain to Australia in 1930. Staying at the Hotel Corones, in celebration she filled her bath with twenty-four magnums of champagne, which all the other guests later wanted to drink in her honour!

Two years later the aviator Elly Beinhorn would also stop at Charleville at the Hotel Corones, and this time Harry took the aviator on a duck shooting expedition.

Other early distinguished guests included the aviators Sir Charles Kingsford Smith, Sir Hudson Fysh, the Wright brothers, Nancy Bird and Jean Batten, the then Governor of Queensland, Sir Leslie Orme Wilson, the internationally renowned baritone Peter Dawson and the much-loved English singer Gracie Fields. In fact Gracie Fields caused a sensation when, before departing from the hotel, she stood at the open windows in front of the large crowd and the troops who had gathered in front of the hotel, and sang one of the songs for which she was famous: “Wish Me Luck AsYou Wave Me Goodbye”.

Other celebrities staying at the hotel over the decades would include judges, politicians (including Gough Whitlam), pop stars (one of whom was Johnny O’Keefe) and even members of the royal family, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and the Duchess of Gloucester who later presented Harry with a gold lapel pin as a memento of their stay at the hotel. It was from the Duke of Gloucester, at that time Governor-General of Australia, that Harry was given permission to use the royal insignia with the wording “Under Vice Regal Patronage” on the hotel’s letter­heading.

The success of the hotel was due largely to Harry’s business acumen and his capacity for hard work. He demanded equal dedication and hard work from his staff but at the same time he was known for the fairness with which he treated his employees.Yet, the success of the hotel was also due in no small part to his wife Eftyhia (or Effte as she was known) who gave her complete support to Harry in all his activmties.

Loved and respected by all, she was an elegant, cultivated and beautifully spoken lady who was always impeccably and stylishly dressed, and she was a great asset to Harry when guests, especially dignitaries, were welcomed and entertained. Effie trained the staff to exacting standards and worked hard in the background supervising many aspects of running the hotel, including overseeing the kitchen and setting the menus for the guests and for the many banquets and special functions.

But it was Harry’s sense of humour which helped endear him to guests and townsfolk alike. He laughed along with the others when jokes were made about his heavy accent - even makingjokes against himself - and in the end would always see the funny side of any incident, And the incidents were many.There was the time when, again on picnic race day, people
strung his crockery in rows across the street, or the time when locals broke into his hotel in the early hours of the morning and sold liquor to the people in the main Street - giving him the takings the next morning.

Another time a race-goer bet Harry one hundred bottles of champagne that he could not serve all the guests in the dining-room with champagne in five minutes. Harry took on the bet. Corks popped like gunfire and he flew around the room, winning the bet.

Not so profitable for Harry was the time when a drunken guest rode his horse into the ballroom on the night that a very elegant ball was in progress.The horse slithered and slipped on the highly polished floor, sliding into tables which came crashing down bringing their crockery, cutlery, glassware and floral decorations with them, while expensive ballgowns which had been brought from Brisbane especially for the occasion were ripped and mangled in the melée that broke out!

Other stories affectionately related by Harry’s many friends concern Harry himself. On one occasion he was thrown into a panic when it was discovered that a honeymoon couple were not actually married because of a legal technicality, a shocking thing by the mores of those early days, which Harry immediately set about helping them to rectify.
Some of the stories involve distinguished guests like the late Sir James Blair, the Chief Justice of Queensland, who was being driven around Charleville with Harry in a somewhat dilapidated old taxi. Sir James upbraided the taxi driver for \vhat he considered to be the man’s atrocious driving, and announced that when he got back to Brisbane he would cancel the man’s licence. When Harry protested that he could not do that, Sir James indignantly asked why not since he was the Chie fJustice. Harry replied: “Because he hasn’t got a b.......... licence!”

But perhaps the most enduring, and endearing, story concerns Harry’s somewhat shaky grasp of written English. On one occasion, one of Harry’s guests had been a circuit judge from
Brisbane who used to stay at the hotel, and who, every year, would go duck shooting with Harry. His visit to Charleville over, the judge had taken the train back to Brisbane when Harry discovered that he had left his gun behind, so Harry telephoned him to let him know. But the line between Charleville and Brisbane was very poor, compoumnded by Harry’s heavy accent, and the judge could not understand what Harry was talking about. “Spell it” the judge said, becoming rather exasperated. So Harry spelt “G for Jesus, U for onion, N for pneumonia”!

Throughout this hectic but interesting time, Harry maintained his support for aviation and especially for Qantas. If ever the crew of one of the Qantas planes had to stay overnight in Charleville they were always his guests at his hotel, and Harry’s tradition of sending picnic baskets out to planes which stopped for refuelling continued faithfully. Then in 1934 Qantas was granted a licence for international flights, which began in Brisbane, flying to Darwin with a stop at Charleville en route.

Harry took over a disused hangar at the airfield and converted it into a dining-room where meals were served to passengers, with all the elegance with which they were served in his hotel dining—room, complete with damask tablecloths and silver cutlery. Harry continued to provide this service for Qantas until larger aeroplanes meant that the stop at Charleville was no longer necessary.

With all these activities in Charleville, not for one minute did Harry overlook his business affairs in Quilpie.

In October 1934 he and Jim leased in that town the Club Hotel (which they purchased on 31 July 1965 for £ 8,000) bringing the number of hotels they controlled there to three with, incidentally, all of them being on the same block in the main street.

Now with a number of hotels and other business concerns, Harry and Jin4 decided to put their small empire on a sounder basis and on 10 June 1935 they formed a company, Hotels Pty Ltd., the name of which they would change on 8 October 1936 to Corones Hotels Pty Ltd. In the meantime, on 13 December 1935, they sold all their equities to this company, of which Harry was the Managing Director.

The end of the 1930s and the period of World War II saw business boom in the Charleville hotels, with the establishment of an American Air Force Base in the new, but not yet operational, Charleville Hospital.

Harry welcomed the troops and treated them with his usual exuberance and hospitality, holding dances in the hotel every night, but life with the troops was not always without incident. While this was the time during which Gracie Fields visited Charleville, it was also marked, quite literally, by bullet holes inside the hotel. One night a crowd in one of the rooms had become so rowdy that an American Air Force officer, driven to distraction by the noise, fired his revolver down the corridor to shut them up, and hit the walls in several places!

It was the American troops who first began to call Harry “Poppa” and Eftyhia “Nana”.These names stuck and from this time on Harry and his wife were known affectionately to all by these names.

After the war business continued to prosper and on 4 December 1948 the company bought the Hotel Charleville, at a cost of £37,100. It flourished, too, throughout the following decade, but the rural economy suffered badly during the drought of the 1960s.The local pastoral industry was hit hard and with it the economy of Charleville, including the Corones empire.

While Harry’s personal life had received a great fillip with his M.B.E. in 1965, in 1966 tragedy struck with the death from a stroke of his dearly loved nephew Jim, on 4 July.

Now he was deprived of his closest friend and his partner in all his business enterprises.Together they had built up an empire which at its peak comprised two hotels, sixteen shops and one garage in Charleville, as well as three hotels, six shops, one bank building, one garage and one house in Quilpie, all under the
umbrella of Harry Corones. Other business interests included the six thousand, eight hundred and eighty hectare Whynot Station, near Thargomindah and at one time a half-share in Gatino and Company, a wine and spirit import business in Sydney, which operated until the Depression.With Jim’s death, Harry’s health began to deteriorate.

However, business alone was not Harry’s sole interest or concern in life.

He was an enthusiastic worker for many causes in the town, and a devoted family man. Effie bore him five children: Peter (b.23 February 19l5), Alexander (b.23 February 1916), George (b. 6 April l918), Anna (b. 15 January 1921) and Stamatia (b. 3 April 1923). Having great respect for education, and also influenced in this by his well-educated wife, Harry sent Peter and Alexander to Ipswich Grammar and George to Toowoomba Grammar, while the two girls spent some years at Arsakeion, the prestigious girls’ school in Athens.

Sadly, though, Alexander died when he was fifteen years old. While playing in a football match he injured his leg; an infection set in and developed into septicemia, and this took his young life which was so full of promise.

Harry’s warmth and concern for others did not stop with his family, and he was a generous benefactor of various causes in the town, especially the hospital. His dedicated service to the Ambulance Board lasted for thirty-nine years (1919— 1958), to the Fire Brigade Board for over twenty-five years (until 1958), and he served on the Hospital Board for an unbroken fifty-three years (1916-1969),— a period of service not remotely approached by any other individual in Charleville or elsewhere. For much of this time he was also chairman of the Board’s Works Committee and the hospital stands as a testimony to his unflagging dedication in this role, while the nurses’ quarters was officially named The Harry Corones Block.

Harry, a lover of sport, was a great supporter of local sporting groups. He was a foundation member and major developer of both the original Charleville golf club and the first bowling club, he helped to set up and finance a local basketball team, and was a foundation patron of the All Whites Football Club, who made him a life member in September 1966, in recognition of his continued support of the club.

Also, he was a Freemason and in appreciation of his long and significant service in 1972, just before his death, he was presented with the Life Governor’s Jewel of the Aged Masons, Widows and Orphans Institution.

The one institution in which he would never participate, though, was politics (despite his many politician friends), always declaring that he had no patience with politics and always refusing to get involved!

Nor was the individual overlooked in Harry’s concern and magnanimity. Whenever drovers were away on their lengthy trips, Harry always ensured that their faniilies (whether white or aboriginal) had enough food, and helped them sort out any other problems they might have. In the same way his generosity, based on respect, extended to all the nurses and doctors who worked at the Charleville Hospital, never allowing them to pay for any food or drinks they niight have in any of his hotels where there being anything other than Harry’s guests was out of the question.

In the years since Jim’s death, though, Harry had lost his hearing and a large part of his eyesight. He still lived in the hotel he had created, guided and controlled for so niany years, but now his days were drawing to a close. On 22 March 1972 Harry Corones, the man who had left his indelible mark on so many aspects of life in Charleville, passed away, at the grand old age of eighty-eight.The whole town was deeply saddened, and a huge procession, comprising most of the townspeople as well as many of his friends and former guests from other places, accompanied his coffin to the local cemetery where he was buried. Two years later, on 8 March 1974, Eftyhia (who was now living in Brisbane) followed her husband and was buried next to him in the Charleville cemetery, where Alexander had also been buried many years before.

The day after Harry’s funeral the dinner bell beside the entrance of the dining-room, which had been a part of a bore casing given to Harry by a wealthy grazier friend, bronzed and made into a dinner bell by Harry, was not rung. It has never been rung since.

The Hotel Corones still stands as a memorial to Harry Corones and his wife Eftyhia. In the last years of his life it had been run by their son Peter and his wife Mary. But a decade later it passed out of Corones hands, changing hands once more in 1985 when it was sold to Gordon and Andrew Harding.

Lovingly and painstakingly restored after the disastrous floods of 1990, its architectural and social value were recognised by the National Trust of Queensland in 1993 when they included it on their Register, while in May 1997 it was placed on the Heritage List.

Today, guests still stay in the splendid I 920s rooms of the Hotel Corones, locals still drink in its magnificent bar and both visitors and locals eat in the splendid dining-room which retains much of its original decor and furnishings, including the specially made chairs with a carved C embellishing them and some of the beautifully engraved silverware.

Daily tours through the Hotel Corones mean that the vision and the high standards of Harry Corones, who built a hotel that was unequalled in rural Queensland, can still be appreciated, as can Harry hiniself the man who became known as “the uncrowned king of the West”.

From,

In The Wake Of Odysseus. Portraits of Greek Settlers in Australia.

George Kanarakis

RMIT University
124 La Trobe Street
Melbourne 3000

Greek-Australian Archives Publications

1997

History > Photography

submitted by The Australian Paliohora Kythera Archaeological Survey (APKAS) on 29.12.2005

Two pyramidal loom weights, classical period, from Vythoulas

Prehistory: before 1000 B.C.

The earliest recorded archaeological evidence for human occupation of Kythera indicates that the island was inhabited by the Early Bronze Age. Early Helladic sites have been identified so far in the northern part of the Island, at Pyreatides and at Vythoulas, between Ayia Pelayia and Potamos (Waterhouse & Hope-Simpson 1961:149).

Early Helladic site at Pyreatides

By far the most important prehistoric site, and one of the most significant archaeological sites on the island, is the Minoan colony at Kastri. Established sometime in the Early Helladic/Minoan Period, this settlement, and the associated Minoan Peak Top Sanctuary on Ayios Yeorgios, brought the island into the wider trade and political system of the Aegean and the wider Mediterranean world (Coldstream & Huxley 1972). The findings from these two sites have contributed greatly to the understanding of the Minoans’ mercantile activities in the middle of second millennium B.C.

Minoan settlement does not appear to have been confined to the immediate hinterland around Kastri. Evidence of Minoan/Mycenaean presence has been noted at Lioni, approximately 1 km north of Chora, and near the village of Kalamos, as well as further north at Vythoulas and Karavas (Waterhouse & Hope-Simpson 1961:149-152).

The Dark Age and Antiquity: 1000 B.C. to 500 A.D.

Off the coast there is an Island called Cythera – Chilon, the wisest man who ever lived amongst us, once said that it would be better for the Spartans if it were sunk beneath the sea ….

Herodotus, Book 7:234-238

Cythera is an island lying off the coast of Laconia opposite Malea. The population is Spartan, though they belong to the semi-independent class. …..it was the port for merchant ships from Egypt and Libya and also served as a protection to Laconia from attack by pirates from the sea ….

Thucydides, Book 4:53

The settlement at Kastri, and possibly the whole island, appears to have been abandoned sometime towards the end of the Late Bronze Age; and apart from a few isolated finds of Geometric sherds there appears to have been no settlement on the island until the 6th century B.C. (Huxley 1972:37 and 309). It was in this period that Herodotus states that Kythera was an Argive possession (Herodotus, Book 1:78-82). Herodotus, however, alludes to a possible earlier presence on the island when he refers to the celebrated Temple of Aphrodite at Paliokastro as having been built by the Phoenicians (Herodotus, Book 1:103-108).

By the 5th century Kythera had moved into the Spartan sphere of influence. Like the rest of Greece in the 5th and 4th centuries Kythera was not spared in the conflicts between Athens and Sparta, when it appears to have changed hands between the two rivals no less than six times, its strategic importance centred on its excellent position to serve as a base from which to launch raids into Lakonia (Huxley 1972:37-39). The “capital” of the island at this time was no doubt Paliokastro (Kythera), with Skandeia (Kastri) as its harbour town (Thucydides, Book 4:54).

The Hellenistic and Roman periods seem to have been a time of peace and prosperity for the island as more sites from these periods, such as at Vythoulas, Elliniko, Gonies and Galati, near Mitata, have been located (Huxley 1972:39; Waterhouse & Hope-Simpson 1961:157).

The end of Antiquity and the Byzantine Period: 500 A.D. to 1204 A.D.

Early in the Byzantine period, Kythera underwent a major decline. The area around Kastri, the most fertile and densely populated part of the island in Antiquity, appears to have been depopulated after the 4th century AD, with signs of intermittent habitation identified up until the 7th century. The final abandonment of the Kastri area seems to have taken place in the mid-7th century (Herrin 1972:43-44). This obscure period in Kytherian history is paralleled elsewhere in southern Greece between the 6th and 8th centuries. Byzantine central authority, centred on Constantinople and Anatolia, had been losing control along the periphery of the Empire since the end of the 6th century. Piratical raids by Arabs based in Crete as well as possibly Slav tribesmen from the mainland, were the most likely contributors to the abandonment of Kastri and perhaps all of Kythera (Maltezou 1980:154). The island itself however, does not appear to have been permanently settled by Slavs or Arabs, although it is always possible that there might have been an (as-yet-undiscovered) Arab base on Kythera.

The resurgence of the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century led to the stabilization of the situation in southern Greece. This culminated with the re-conquest of Crete in 961 AD, which resulted in the dramatic diminishment of pirate activity in the Aegean. It is not surprising therefore, that in these favourable conditions, Kythera became an attractive location for renewed sedentary occupation.

The initial re-settlement of the island was undertaken by one man. According to his biography, Osios Theodoros is said to have arrived on the abandoned Island sometime during the middle of the 10th century (Herrin 1972: 45; Leontsinis 1987:43). Theodoros chose the remains of the earlier church of Sergius and Vacchos, situated somewhere near Logothianika, in which to settle (Herrin 1972:45). The saint lived in very difficult circumstances and his original companion almost immediately left Kythera, but Osios Theodoros lived for some time on the island, apparently in isolation. The saint’s example for holiness and his courage in defying the wild circumstances on the island, however, attracted some attention and after his death Kythera began to attract other settlers from the Greek mainland.

It is in this period that the shadowy figure of Georgios Pachys emerged. Alternatively described as either the Despot of Sparta or a Monemvasian citizen, Pachys seems to have encouraged the initial re-settlement of the island with Lakonian immigrants (Herrin 1972:46-7; Leontsinis 1987:34). For reasons that are unclear, Pachys handed over his interests to the powerful Monemvasian family, Eudaimonoioannis, and retired to Mitata where he appears to have acted as their agent until the arrival of the first Eudaimonoioannis “governor” (Herrin1972: 46-7 and Ince, Koukoulis, & Smyth 1987:97). The “governor” established himself at the site of present day Potamos, where he built a tower, which has only recently been demolished (Ince, Koukoulis, & Smyth 1987: 97). By the end of the 12th Kythera was more or less under the complete control of the Eudaimonoioannis family (Herrin 1972:47).

That settlement across the Island in this period must have been rapid and this is reflected in the number of churches dated to the 10th to 12th centuries, among them: the monastery of Osios Theodoros near Logothianika, Ayios Demetrios (Pourko), the Spelaion of Ayia Sophia and Ayios Nikolaos (Milopotamos), Ayios Nikon (Zaglanianika), Ayios Vlasios (Friligianika), Ayios Andreas (Livadi) and Ayios Petros (Areoi) (Herrin 1972:46).

The Venetian Period: 1204 to 1797
The eye of Crete


Quote from a report by the general proveditor of Candia, 1602, in Maltezou, 1980:GET PG NO

The strategic position of Kythera has never been more apparent than in the division of the Byzantine Empire amongst the victors of the Fourth Crusade (1204), when the island was awarded to the Venetians. The possession of Kythera was of critical importance to the Venetians, serving as a staging post between Venice and its possessions in the Levant (Leontsini 1987:33).

In 1207 Marco Veniero was appointed Marquis of Cerigo (Herrin 1972:48). The political condition of Kythera throughout the 13th century was unsettled. The primary reasons for this were the preference of Marco Veniero and his descendants to reside in their more lucrative estates in Crete and the continued maintenance of a strong presence on the island by the Eudaimonoioannis family (Herrin 1972:49). In 1238 the Venieri gained some measure of control by forming a marriage alliance with the Eudaimonoioannis family, only to lose the island to the adventurer knight Licario in 1269. Licario handed control of the island back to the Byzantines, who in turn returned the island to the Eudaimonoioannis family (Leontsini 1987:36).

The situation stabilized in 1309 when another marriage alliance between the Venieri and Eudaimonoioannis families gave the former greater control over the Island. Kythera was divided up into a feudal system of 24 “lots,” of which the four grandsons of Marco Veniero took six each. The areas around Kastri and Kapsali, however were exempted from this division (Herrin 1972:49). It appears that the Venieri initially adopted a conciliatory position towards the inhabitants of the island, acting quite independently of Venetian authority (Maltezou 1980:151).

The Venieri involvement in the Cretan uprising of 1363 against Venetian rule gave the Venetian government the opportunity to impose greater control over the strategically important Kythera. Following the suppression of the revolt, the Venetians expelled the Venieri from their positions and established direct rule over the island by appointing a governor (Herrin 1972:50).

The island’s defensive and agricultural capabilities were enhanced during the 14th and 15th centuries but these efforts came to nought in the Turko–Venetian War of 1537-40 (Herrin 1972:50 and Chatham 1981:253). During this war many of Venice’s Aegean possessions were ravaged by the Turkish Admiral, Khair-ed-Din Barbarossa. In the first year of the war Barbarossa (trans. “Red Beard”) swept through the Frankish and Venetian controlled islands of Amorgos, Astypalaia, Ios, Anaphe, Seriphos, Antiparos, Paros, Skyros, Skiathos and Skopelos (Chatham 1981:253 and Kem, 1988:57). Kythera in that year also felt the fury of Barbarossa’s armarda. The island was attacked and the town of Ayios Demetrios sacked. According to local tradition seven thousand islanders were either killed or taken away as slaves (Leontsinis 1987:43), a number that is certainly an exaggeration but still an indication of the seriousness of the attack.. . In a census taken eight years later the population of Kythera was recorded at only 1,850 (Maltezou, 1980:156) and the attack apparently had a significant effect on the development of the island for centuries. Again according to local tradition, survivors of the sack founded the modern villages in the Paliochora region, while others apparently contracted to the southern half of the island where the forts of Milopotamos, Chora and Avlemonas afforded some measure of security. The re-population of the island was painfully slow and did not reach its pre-1537 levels until the start of the 19th century (Leontsinis 1987:Table 1). This period, coupled with the neglect affected by the continuing decline of the Venetian Republic throughout the 16th and 18th centuries was yet another ”Dark Age” for the island.

The Modern Period: 1797 to present

The end of Venetian rule on the island came with the collapse of the Republic in 1797 and was followed by nearly a decade of instability. After Venice’s defeat by the French, Kythera and the other Ionian Islands were ceded to the victors (Leontsinis 1987:19). The French occupation was short-lived, however: a Russo–Turkish co-dominion was established over the Ionian Islands in 1800, in the form of the Septinsular Republic. This political entity did not survive long, as the French regained possession of the Islands in 1807, only to lose them shortly after to the British (Leontsinis 1987:20).

At the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars, Kythera and the Ionian Islands were formally acquired by the British Empire. This period was one of peace and prosperity for Kythera, as the British occupiers went to considerable effort to promote education and agriculture, as well as establish a transport infrastructure of roads and bridges, many of which are still in use today.

In 1864 the Ionian Islands were ceded to the Greek Government and henceforth the fortunes of Kythera have followed those of the modern Greek State. The incorporation of Kythera into a large and relatively stable State did not insulate it from the most recurring feature of the island’s history, depopulation. AS mentioned previously, many inhabitants of the north of Kythera sought their fortunes in trade and business abroad, especially in Asia Minor and Egypt. From the end of the 19th century until the 1970s thousands of Kythereans migrated to countries such as Australia and America in search of better life. By the 1970s the permanent population of the island had been reduced to 3000, a quarter of what it had been a century before (Leontsinis 1987:Table 1). Foreign exchange, funds sent back to the island from immigrants abroad, have played a large role in the economy of the island and, in the past decade there has been an important reverse migration, as Kytherians living in North America and, especially, Australia have come back, either for a long vacation, or to live permanently on the island. Tourism, based primarily on Kytherians living in the Athens area and Australia, is a growing industry, as is the building trade, focused on the reconstruction of family village homes or new summer residences.

History > Photography

submitted by The Australian Paliohora Kythera Archaeological Survey (APKAS) on 29.12.2005

Early Helladic site at Pyreatides

Prehistory: before 1000 B.C.

The earliest recorded archaeological evidence for human occupation of Kythera indicates that the island was inhabited by the Early Bronze Age. Early Helladic sites have been identified so far in the northern part of the Island, at Pyreatides and at Vythoulas, between Ayia Pelayia and Potamos (Waterhouse & Hope-Simpson 1961:149).

Early Helladic site at Pyreatides

By far the most important prehistoric site, and one of the most significant archaeological sites on the island, is the Minoan colony at Kastri. Established sometime in the Early Helladic/Minoan Period, this settlement, and the associated Minoan Peak Top Sanctuary on Ayios Yeorgios, brought the island into the wider trade and political system of the Aegean and the wider Mediterranean world (Coldstream & Huxley 1972). The findings from these two sites have contributed greatly to the understanding of the Minoans’ mercantile activities in the middle of second millennium B.C.

Minoan settlement does not appear to have been confined to the immediate hinterland around Kastri. Evidence of Minoan/Mycenaean presence has been noted at Lioni, approximately 1 km north of Chora, and near the village of Kalamos, as well as further north at Vythoulas and Karavas (Waterhouse & Hope-Simpson 1961:149-152).

The Dark Age and Antiquity: 1000 B.C. to 500 A.D.

Off the coast there is an Island called Cythera – Chilon, the wisest man who ever lived amongst us, once said that it would be better for the Spartans if it were sunk beneath the sea ….

Herodotus, Book 7:234-238

Cythera is an island lying off the coast of Laconia opposite Malea. The population is Spartan, though they belong to the semi-independent class. …..it was the port for merchant ships from Egypt and Libya and also served as a protection to Laconia from attack by pirates from the sea ….

Thucydides, Book 4:53

The settlement at Kastri, and possibly the whole island, appears to have been abandoned sometime towards the end of the Late Bronze Age; and apart from a few isolated finds of Geometric sherds there appears to have been no settlement on the island until the 6th century B.C. (Huxley 1972:37 and 309). It was in this period that Herodotus states that Kythera was an Argive possession (Herodotus, Book 1:78-82). Herodotus, however, alludes to a possible earlier presence on the island when he refers to the celebrated Temple of Aphrodite at Paliokastro as having been built by the Phoenicians (Herodotus, Book 1:103-108).

By the 5th century Kythera had moved into the Spartan sphere of influence. Like the rest of Greece in the 5th and 4th centuries Kythera was not spared in the conflicts between Athens and Sparta, when it appears to have changed hands between the two rivals no less than six times, its strategic importance centred on its excellent position to serve as a base from which to launch raids into Lakonia (Huxley 1972:37-39). The “capital” of the island at this time was no doubt Paliokastro (Kythera), with Skandeia (Kastri) as its harbour town (Thucydides, Book 4:54).

The Hellenistic and Roman periods seem to have been a time of peace and prosperity for the island as more sites from these periods, such as at Vythoulas, Elliniko, Gonies and Galati, near Mitata, have been located (Huxley 1972:39; Waterhouse & Hope-Simpson 1961:157).

The end of Antiquity and the Byzantine Period: 500 A.D. to 1204 A.D.

Early in the Byzantine period, Kythera underwent a major decline. The area around Kastri, the most fertile and densely populated part of the island in Antiquity, appears to have been depopulated after the 4th century AD, with signs of intermittent habitation identified up until the 7th century. The final abandonment of the Kastri area seems to have taken place in the mid-7th century (Herrin 1972:43-44). This obscure period in Kytherian history is paralleled elsewhere in southern Greece between the 6th and 8th centuries. Byzantine central authority, centred on Constantinople and Anatolia, had been losing control along the periphery of the Empire since the end of the 6th century. Piratical raids by Arabs based in Crete as well as possibly Slav tribesmen from the mainland, were the most likely contributors to the abandonment of Kastri and perhaps all of Kythera (Maltezou 1980:154). The island itself however, does not appear to have been permanently settled by Slavs or Arabs, although it is always possible that there might have been an (as-yet-undiscovered) Arab base on Kythera.

The resurgence of the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century led to the stabilization of the situation in southern Greece. This culminated with the re-conquest of Crete in 961 AD, which resulted in the dramatic diminishment of pirate activity in the Aegean. It is not surprising therefore, that in these favourable conditions, Kythera became an attractive location for renewed sedentary occupation.

The initial re-settlement of the island was undertaken by one man. According to his biography, Osios Theodoros is said to have arrived on the abandoned Island sometime during the middle of the 10th century (Herrin 1972: 45; Leontsinis 1987:43). Theodoros chose the remains of the earlier church of Sergius and Vacchos, situated somewhere near Logothianika, in which to settle (Herrin 1972:45). The saint lived in very difficult circumstances and his original companion almost immediately left Kythera, but Osios Theodoros lived for some time on the island, apparently in isolation. The saint’s example for holiness and his courage in defying the wild circumstances on the island, however, attracted some attention and after his death Kythera began to attract other settlers from the Greek mainland.

It is in this period that the shadowy figure of Georgios Pachys emerged. Alternatively described as either the Despot of Sparta or a Monemvasian citizen, Pachys seems to have encouraged the initial re-settlement of the island with Lakonian immigrants (Herrin 1972:46-7; Leontsinis 1987:34). For reasons that are unclear, Pachys handed over his interests to the powerful Monemvasian family, Eudaimonoioannis, and retired to Mitata where he appears to have acted as their agent until the arrival of the first Eudaimonoioannis “governor” (Herrin1972: 46-7 and Ince, Koukoulis, & Smyth 1987:97). The “governor” established himself at the site of present day Potamos, where he built a tower, which has only recently been demolished (Ince, Koukoulis, & Smyth 1987: 97). By the end of the 12th Kythera was more or less under the complete control of the Eudaimonoioannis family (Herrin 1972:47).

That settlement across the Island in this period must have been rapid and this is reflected in the number of churches dated to the 10th to 12th centuries, among them: the monastery of Osios Theodoros near Logothianika, Ayios Demetrios (Pourko), the Spelaion of Ayia Sophia and Ayios Nikolaos (Milopotamos), Ayios Nikon (Zaglanianika), Ayios Vlasios (Friligianika), Ayios Andreas (Livadi) and Ayios Petros (Areoi) (Herrin 1972:46).

The Venetian Period: 1204 to 1797
The eye of Crete


Quote from a report by the general proveditor of Candia, 1602, in Maltezou, 1980:GET PG NO

The strategic position of Kythera has never been more apparent than in the division of the Byzantine Empire amongst the victors of the Fourth Crusade (1204), when the island was awarded to the Venetians. The possession of Kythera was of critical importance to the Venetians, serving as a staging post between Venice and its possessions in the Levant (Leontsini 1987:33).

In 1207 Marco Veniero was appointed Marquis of Cerigo (Herrin 1972:48). The political condition of Kythera throughout the 13th century was unsettled. The primary reasons for this were the preference of Marco Veniero and his descendants to reside in their more lucrative estates in Crete and the continued maintenance of a strong presence on the island by the Eudaimonoioannis family (Herrin 1972:49). In 1238 the Venieri gained some measure of control by forming a marriage alliance with the Eudaimonoioannis family, only to lose the island to the adventurer knight Licario in 1269. Licario handed control of the island back to the Byzantines, who in turn returned the island to the Eudaimonoioannis family (Leontsini 1987:36).

The situation stabilized in 1309 when another marriage alliance between the Venieri and Eudaimonoioannis families gave the former greater control over the Island. Kythera was divided up into a feudal system of 24 “lots,” of which the four grandsons of Marco Veniero took six each. The areas around Kastri and Kapsali, however were exempted from this division (Herrin 1972:49). It appears that the Venieri initially adopted a conciliatory position towards the inhabitants of the island, acting quite independently of Venetian authority (Maltezou 1980:151).

The Venieri involvement in the Cretan uprising of 1363 against Venetian rule gave the Venetian government the opportunity to impose greater control over the strategically important Kythera. Following the suppression of the revolt, the Venetians expelled the Venieri from their positions and established direct rule over the island by appointing a governor (Herrin 1972:50).

The island’s defensive and agricultural capabilities were enhanced during the 14th and 15th centuries but these efforts came to nought in the Turko–Venetian War of 1537-40 (Herrin 1972:50 and Chatham 1981:253). During this war many of Venice’s Aegean possessions were ravaged by the Turkish Admiral, Khair-ed-Din Barbarossa. In the first year of the war Barbarossa (trans. “Red Beard”) swept through the Frankish and Venetian controlled islands of Amorgos, Astypalaia, Ios, Anaphe, Seriphos, Antiparos, Paros, Skyros, Skiathos and Skopelos (Chatham 1981:253 and Kem, 1988:57). Kythera in that year also felt the fury of Barbarossa’s armarda. The island was attacked and the town of Ayios Demetrios sacked. According to local tradition seven thousand islanders were either killed or taken away as slaves (Leontsinis 1987:43), a number that is certainly an exaggeration but still an indication of the seriousness of the attack.. . In a census taken eight years later the population of Kythera was recorded at only 1,850 (Maltezou, 1980:156) and the attack apparently had a significant effect on the development of the island for centuries. Again according to local tradition, survivors of the sack founded the modern villages in the Paliochora region, while others apparently contracted to the southern half of the island where the forts of Milopotamos, Chora and Avlemonas afforded some measure of security. The re-population of the island was painfully slow and did not reach its pre-1537 levels until the start of the 19th century (Leontsinis 1987:Table 1). This period, coupled with the neglect affected by the continuing decline of the Venetian Republic throughout the 16th and 18th centuries was yet another ”Dark Age” for the island.

The Modern Period: 1797 to present

The end of Venetian rule on the island came with the collapse of the Republic in 1797 and was followed by nearly a decade of instability. After Venice’s defeat by the French, Kythera and the other Ionian Islands were ceded to the victors (Leontsinis 1987:19). The French occupation was short-lived, however: a Russo–Turkish co-dominion was established over the Ionian Islands in 1800, in the form of the Septinsular Republic. This political entity did not survive long, as the French regained possession of the Islands in 1807, only to lose them shortly after to the British (Leontsinis 1987:20).

At the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars, Kythera and the Ionian Islands were formally acquired by the British Empire. This period was one of peace and prosperity for Kythera, as the British occupiers went to considerable effort to promote education and agriculture, as well as establish a transport infrastructure of roads and bridges, many of which are still in use today.

In 1864 the Ionian Islands were ceded to the Greek Government and henceforth the fortunes of Kythera have followed those of the modern Greek State. The incorporation of Kythera into a large and relatively stable State did not insulate it from the most recurring feature of the island’s history, depopulation. AS mentioned previously, many inhabitants of the north of Kythera sought their fortunes in trade and business abroad, especially in Asia Minor and Egypt. From the end of the 19th century until the 1970s thousands of Kythereans migrated to countries such as Australia and America in search of better life. By the 1970s the permanent population of the island had been reduced to 3000, a quarter of what it had been a century before (Leontsinis 1987:Table 1). Foreign exchange, funds sent back to the island from immigrants abroad, have played a large role in the economy of the island and, in the past decade there has been an important reverse migration, as Kytherians living in North America and, especially, Australia have come back, either for a long vacation, or to live permanently on the island. Tourism, based primarily on Kytherians living in the Athens area and Australia, is a growing industry, as is the building trade, focused on the reconstruction of family village homes or new summer residences.

History > Photography

submitted by Jim Tzannes on 27.12.2005

Gaia, Uranos, Ronos, Aphrodite.

Gaia

Gaia (Lat. terra: "The earth") was the first being, who appeared out of the chaos.

In the theory of Hesiod, Gaia was the first being, who appeared out of the chaos together with Tartaros (underworld), Nyx (night), Erebos (darkness) und Eros (ghost of love). Without the help of a man she created her sons Uranos (heaven) and Pontos (ocean).

She fused with her son Uranos, and bore the titans, Kronos Rhea, also Okeanos and Tethis, gods of the great stream, which winds around the earth.

Also the Kyklops, and the giants with a hundred arms.

But her man and son Uranos hated these creatures so much, that he pushed them back into the womb before they were born, which caused Gaia great harm.

Angry at her treatment by the tyrannical Uranos, Gaia furnished her son Kronos with a sickle made from firestone, and ordered him to castrate his father at the next opportunity which he was given.

Kronos did what his mother had told him, and threw the detached genitals into the sea. Out of the falling blood drops appeared the Erinnyias (furies), the giants, and also the Meliai (nymphs of the ashen).

The phallus floated on the sea and finally arrived at Paphos (Cypern) - or on the island Kythera/Lakonia. Out of the foam which was formed on the phallus the love-goddess Aphrodite came to being.

From:

http://demo.interred.de/goetter/goetter_en_413.php

History > Photography

submitted by The Australian Paliohora Kythera Archaeological Survey (APKAS) on 27.12.2005

Modern oil-press machinery.

Karavas.

History > Photography

submitted by Gilgandra Historical Society on 27.12.2005

Gilgandra Telephone exchange, with numerous

Gilgandra Rural Museum contains an extraordinary array of realia from Gilgandra's past.

[Gilgandra is known as the town of windmills - probably having more windmills per head of population than any other town in Australia. Hence the massive windmill at the front of the Rural Museum.]

Not to be confused with the The Coo-ee Heritage Centre, which is located adjacent to the Museum.

The Coo-ee Heritage Centre was constructed in 2001 and aims "to harmoniously represent the cultures and lifestyles, past and present, of the people of the Gilgandra district in a setting conducive to providing education and entertainment".

Both museums have accumulated a number of pieces of realia, and numerous documents and photographs, that pertain to the Kytherian history of Gilgandra.

Local historical societies and museums, of the quality of those in Gilgandra, provide rich rescources for the study of Kytherian history in Australia.

History > Photography

submitted by Gilgandra Historical Society on 27.12.2005

Gilgandra Rural Museum. Packed with well-maintained realia.

Gilgandra Rural Museum contains an extraordinary array of realia from Gilgandra's past.

[Gilgandra is known as the town of windmills - probably having more windmills per head of population than any other town in Australia. Hence the massive windmill at the front of the Rural Museum.]

Not to be confused with the The Coo-ee Heritage Centre, which is located adjacent to the Museum.

The Coo-ee Heritage Centre was constructed in 2001 and aims "to harmoniously represent the cultures and lifestyles, past and present, of the people of the Gilgandra district in a setting conducive to providing education and entertainment".

Both museums have accumulated a number of pieces of realia, and numerous documents and photographs, that pertain to the Kytherian history of Gilgandra.

Local historical societies and museums, of the quality of those in Gilgandra, provide rich rescources for the study of Kytherian history in Australia.

History > Photography

submitted by Gilgandra Historical Society on 27.12.2005

Gilgandra Rural Museum, Dubbo Road, Gilgandra.

Gilgandra Historical Museum contains an extraordinary array of realia from Gilgandra's past.

[Gilgandra is known as the town of windmills - probably having more windmills per head of population than any other town in Australia. Hence the massive windmill at the front of the Rural Museum.]

Not to be confused with the The Coo-ee Heritage Centre, which is located adjacent to the Museum.

The Coo-ee Heritage Centre was constructed in 2001 and aims "to harmoniously represent the cultures and lifestyles, past and present, of the people of the Gilgandra district in a setting conducive to providing education and entertainment".

Both museums have accumulated a number of pieces of realia, and numerous documents and photographs, that pertain to the Kytherian history of Gilgandra.

Local historical societies and museums, of the quality of those in Gilgandra, provide rich rescources for the study of Kytherian history in Australia.

History > Photography

submitted by Pittsburgh Tribune-Review on 26.12.2005

Greek rice pudding

Greek rice pudding was among the desserts offered to the Sarrises' guests.

By Karin Welzel

PITTSBURGH TRIBUNE-REVIEW

Wednesday, December 7, 2005


No matter what country you are in, kourabiethes, melomakarona, thiples and baklava are sweet signals of a traditional Greek Christmas.

On the buffet table, you're likely to find bite-sized dolmadakia (stuffed grape leaves); spanakopita (savory phyllo pies); and avgolemono (lemon-egg) soup. These appetizers often are served at holiday parties and especially at dinner at sundown on Christmas Eve.

Christmas is the second most important religious holiday of the year in the Orthodox church, following Easter. The women of the Philoptochos -- Friends of the Poor -- at All Saints Greek Orthodox Church, in Canonsburg, got an early start celebrating the birth of the Christ child with their annual Christmas party last week at the home of Frank and Athena Sarris, owners of Sarris Candies, of Canonsburg.

It was a very merry event. A huge bowl of salad greens offered with a mountain of olives and feta cheese was just the first item in a buffet line that stretched across an entire wall of the lower level of the Sarris' cheerfully decorated home.


"This is our one social event of the year," says Philoptochos president Rosemary Nikas. "We're purely philanthropic the rest of the time. We do a monthly food outreach of 50 dinners to the community and contribute to the Canonsburg Library, the Hospital Emergency Room Fund and the Safe Haven Family Center, among others."

But that night, it was time to dress up in finery and -- maybe -- break the traditional fast just once before Christmas. The 40-day fast, which began Nov. 15, excludes meat, olive oil, fish with backbone, any animal products and alcohol, says Harriet Matthews, who owns and operates Rosie's Gleeka, a one-woman Greek bakery in Canonsburg. Orthodox Greeks also fast during other religious seasons and every Wednesday and Friday, she says.

Some Greek Orthodox choose a modified fast, during the first week of the holy season and the week before Christmas, as well as Wednesdays and Fridays.

Matthews made the dolmadakia, Greek hamburgers (bite-size meat patties floured and fried until crisp), mini cabbage rolls and other hors d'oeuvres for the gathering. She has a lot of work ahead of her, too, filling orders for Greek Christmas cookies, including kourabiethes (butter cookies similar to Mexican wedding cookies); melomakarona (an oval cookie dipped in honey); and thiples (rolled thin flaky pastry dough that is deep-fried, drizzled with syrup or honey and sprinkled with toasted sesame seeds or nuts).

Some families also serve finikia, a batter cookie stuffed with nuts; after being baked, the cookies are dipped in sugar syrup and rolled in fine nuts.

Baklava -- the most famous Greek pastry, featuring phyllo leaves, a nut filling and sugar syrup -- is a must for the holiday. Some Greek bakers opt for the labor-intensive trigona, bite-sized individually-wrapped baklava cookies, or they use kataife, shredded phyllo dough, to roll the nut filling in jellyroll-style.

Christmas in Greece begins when the first star appears on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24.

"In our church, the next 'day' starts at sundown the previous day, similar to the Jewish calendar," says Marilyn Rouvelas, author of "A Guide to Greek Traditions and Customs in America" (Attica Press, 1993). "There's no fasting on Christmas Eve."

The traditional table often features stuffed turkey, lamb or roast pork; roasted potatoes; spinach-and-cheese pies; and fruit, says Rouvelas, who converted to Greek Orthodoxism when she married a Greek-American in 1967. The Washington, D.C., resident gathered oral histories from church women and worked with church leaders to compile her book, which covers the church's traditions from birth to death, holidays, customs and tips on visiting Greece.

Matthews' traditional Christmas dinner is a beef tenderloin roast with a stuffing made of rice, pine nuts, raisins and herbs and spices. The stuffing recipe is a family heirloom. "You have to practice over and over to get it right," she says, adding that she learned to cook and bake from her mother, Rose, 91, after whom the 20-year-old bakery is named.

Pastitsio, a dish featuring pasta, ground beef and cheese, also is popular, particularly when feeding a large crowd.

Regardless of the entree and side dishes, the centerpiece of the Greek Orthodox Christmas table is christopsomo, a round sweet bread similar to the church's famous Easter bread (tsoureki). However, while the Easter bread is studded with red-dyed eggs, the christopsomo (nuts and fruits can be added) often is engraved and decorated in some way that reflects a family's profession. Or, the home baker makes an imprint of her hand on the top of the bread before baking and tells her children that Jesus visited and blessed the loaf while it baked.

The bread is redolent with two Middle Eastern spices, machlepi and masticha, Rouvelas says. Machlepi is a ground seed from Syria. Masticha comes from the sap of the mastichodendro bush grown primarily on the Greek island of Chios and used in the production of gum. The two spices also are traditional in Greek Easter bread.

Rouvelas says that the head of the household customarily cuts the bread to start the Christmas meal, making the sign of the cross on the bread with a knife while saying, "In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit." Slices are distributed to diners with a wish of "Kala Christouyena" ("Good Christmas) or "Chronia polla" ("Many years").

Greek Christmas doesn't end as the last crumb is gathered following the day's feast. Christmas signals the start of what is called the Dodecameron, which continues until Jan. 6.

"There is New Year's and the cutting of the Vasilopita (bread or cake for St. Basil), in which a lucky coin has been baked," Rouvelas says. St. Basil's feast day is Jan. 1, a church holiday, and parties are held in his honor, she adds.

Food customs at New Year's include eating something sweet at breakfast to sweeten the coming year and to set an abundant table of food to ensure plenty.

The season closes with Epiphany, which ranks third in importance in the Greek Orthodox Church. Practicing Orthodox fast for several days before the observance. Special services are held to proclaim God's first public revelation of the identity of Jesus, his baptism and the beginning of his ministry, as well as the sanctification of holy water.