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submitted by Hariklia Castrisos on 24.06.2008

Kytherian Chronicle of Father Gregorios Logothetis

Translated by Hariklia Castrisios

Towards the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th there lived on Kythera the priest Gregorios Logothetis, father of Basil Logothetis, who was the mayor of Fratsia after the union (enosis)(1). He served for approximately 30 years as rector of the Holy Church of St. Charalambos in Mylopotamos; during this period he wrote the chronicles which cover the years from 1780 to 1817. These Chronicles present us with a picture of public and private life on the island, and of the attitudes and the culture generally of that period, and also include the political events which took place in Kythera during the continuous changes of sovereignty over the Ionian Islands. They constitute a most valuable historical source which after the appropriate critical examination will contribute greatly to the overall knowledge of Kytherian History.

After the death of the writer the chronicles circulated in many hand-written copies. The historian P. Chiotis in his large work, 'History of the Heptanese' was aware of them, and on page 962 of the third volume announces that among the many documents, manuscripts and chronicles which he wishes to publish in the second part of his work will be included the chronicle of Gregorios Logothetis, priest-monk of Kythera.(2)

The writer of an important unpublished historical work entitled 'Genealogy of the Kaloutsis Family'(3); Antonios Miliarakis in his study 'Concerning the Elgin Marbles' {in the periodical
Estia (1888) p 669-676}; and Dionysios Alvanakis in the Kytherian Yearbook of the years 1909 and 1912-1913 were aware of these chronicles and in fact published extracts in their works.

After the announcement of the publishing of the present volume of the Kytherian Review, Mr. Andreas Pachoudakis most kindly offered me the manuscript of his grandfather, of blessed memory. the priest Daniel Varipatis-Chryseas. Between the pages 77 and 116 of one of these books, which from next year we hope to start publishing, there is a copy of the manuscript of Father Logothetis with the following note at its end:
1886 December 18, I rewrote the present chronicle which Father Gregorios Logothetis, of blessed memory, had written. I copied it. Daniel Varipatis, priest.

The merchant Mr. John Lastiotis also had the kindness to offer me the hand-written book of his uncle, Alcibiadis Lastiotis, of blessed memory, a public tax collector. At the beginning of this text appears a copy of Logothetis' chronicle, beginning with the entry for the 30th April 1798. Earlier entries had been copied onto the initial pages of the manuscript which have been cut out and lost.

On the basis these two copies I here publish the Kytherian Chronicles of the priest Gregorios Logothetis keeping faithfully to his style, correcting only his orthography, and adding only brief footnotes.

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This is the introduction written by Sp. Stathis to his publication of the Kytherian Chronicles of Father Gregorios Logothetis in the Kytherian Yearbook of 1923. This is the text which I have here translated.
Hariklia Castrisos

>1780 February 1, the day Monday
There was a revolt by all the inhabitants of our island, especially from Mitata and outwards (4), against the Lord Provveditore (5), Pietro Marcello, who was living in the township of Our Lady (6). Having perpetrated many injustices which the people were not able to bear any longer, a great crowd gathered determined to kill him. But he escaped and afterwards great torments were inflicted on the two Kaloutses, George and Emmanuel, the former's son, and on Emmanuel Kasimatis, the ragionato (7), claiming that they, with a few others from the villages were responsible for the unrest. Finally the two aforesaid nobles and two village priests, Father Georgios Aronis and Father Panagiotis Diakakis from Potamos, were taken to Venice and submitted to torture; in fact the priests were put in the 'camarota' (underground dungeons) where they nearly died. But they were saved and in time they all returned, but after great expense(8).

>1781, September 30.
The Bishop Neophytos Michelakis Kaloutsis passed away. He lived for 5 years and 5 months as head of the diocese. They say his coffee was poisoned by the aforesaid Provveditore Marccello because he was a relative, in fact a brother-in-law, to the previously mentioned Georgios Kaloutsis.

>1782, January 15.
A new Governor has come named Vincenzo Bembo.

>1782, March 20.
The Reverend Anthimos Levounis was consecrated bishop by Ignatios, Archbishop of Monemvasia, and on the 22 March, Tuesday of Easter Week, he ascended the glorious throne of the Kytherian bishopric. Before his consecration the Staides wrote to their relative Makarios, who was bishop of an important area of Vlachia (9) and he tended his resignation there and came here, but the party which consistently wanted Anthimos gave 100 Venetian florins to the Provveditore and Anthimos's consecration happened as quickly as possible, When Makarios known as Prastos (10), arrived, he was too late. Anthimos was one of the best bishops, virtuous, compassionate and of great goodness.

>1783, June 17.
Michalis Frilingos killed his nephew, by name Dimitrios, nicknamed Chiotis. He went and threw him into a dark and very deep chasm. Later the Provveditore on inquiring, learned of it and paid 18 “grosia” (11) to a Sarakinos named Polo who, secured by ropes held by others, went down and finding the corpse in a sack, brought up the victim.

>1784, late June.
The new Governor, the lord David Trevisan has come.

>1785, March 25.
Valerios Kasimatis, the Ragionato (12), has died. He inflicted many injustices on our island's inhabitants. He had three daughters, Drakoula, Regina and Kamilla. Master Emmanuel Stais known as Doctor (13) took Drakoula as wife; Master John Mahairiotis, also called Doctor, took Regina as wife and Master Emmanuel Klados took mistress Kamilla as wife, In this manner the great estate of Valerios Kasimatis was divided into three large portions.

>1787, April 10.
We went to Gonia above Mitata with my uncle, the teacher, and re-dedicated the Church of St. Kyriake, in particular the Holy Altar which had been damaged.

>1788, September 16.
Saturday evening at vespers a lightning bolt fell on the mountain of Agia Moni, into the Church of the Most Holy Mother of God, coming in through the door of the church, and burnt the priest Father Cosmas Viaros Malakos and one of his pupils, a youth about 13 years old; both died instantly. They both bled profusely and with the defiling of the church no liturgy took place until the 26 of the same month, September, when Bishop Anthimos sent there my uncle, the Confessor and Teacher. I went with him and we read the blessings which were required.

>1789, December 20,
Dimitrios Karydis Glitsos died and on opening the tomb at St. Athanasios (14) for his internment we learned and understood only too well, that his daughter-in-law, the priest's wife, named Maria, who had died in 1785 December 27, had been buried alive, because in the tomb she gave birth to a child and the lower part of the tomb had been pulled away, and its head and hair were visible, as also was the afterbirth and even other signs.

>1792, in May.
A very famous man came from Livadia, a Roumeliot named Lambros Katsonis, a robber-pirate (15), an admiral with his own fleet, flying the Russian flag. He had performed many gallant exploits at sea where he totally destroyed many Turkish boats (16).
Afterwards he went to Mani, to Porto-Kagio to build a small fort, and there the Turks sent a fleet, together with French boats and blockaded him. As he feared that the Maniots would betray and surrender him, he left his fleet there, and at night he fled from the middle of his armada in a small caique with fourteen men. He came here to Tsirigo, and going to Kapsali took one of his own boats and left. Immediately afterwards the Pasha sent a tsaousis (Turkish sergeant/captain) with others and they demanded that the Provveditore surrender him, but he had fled (17).

>1792, August 27.
Here on Tsirigo the Provveditore Antonio Dandolo died. He was a glutton and stuffed by his usual meal he then ate so much honeycomb (18) that his navel unknotted and he died. They buried him in the Kastro because he stank so badly that they were not able to bury him in the National Cemetery (19).

>1794 February 8.
People from the village of Logothetianika killed Captain John Stais, down at Peramata, at a place called Avolada, because of Paltadoros Marinos, a Cephalonian. People from Livadi, who had been sent by the Provveditore, went there on the 11February and took the body to the Kastro and buried him there.

>1795, September 2.
Leonardo Korifi, a Venetian magistrate came with three ships to Avlemonas On the 17 September he entered Mylopotamos with ceremony and great honor and we went to
St. Sophia on the nineteenth of the same month. I also went to the Kastro and he prepared for me the Papers of Privilege (20) for my brother, Minas. On the twenty-fourth of the same month he sent to Logothetianika thirty Sklavounes (21) and two captains and by trickery they caught six individuals for the murder of Captain John Stais; and he took them to Corfu.

>1795, December 7.
Eighty Maniots came with two caiques and at Avlemonas they plundered boats and workshops.

>1797, August 10.
A French Commissioner came from Zakynthos called Vincent Renault appointed by the French General in Corfu, by name Angelo Gentili (22). On arriving the Commissioner, on the 14 August, ordered that all coats-of arms and insignia be destroyed and erased from wherever they might be, on the Kastro or on the houses of the nobles. At the same time he had a soldier winched up high with a hammer and other instruments to destroy the St. Mark on the castle wall of the Borgo (23) and wherever else there were such symbols so that they were no longer displayed. On the next day, the fifteenth of the same month, a crowd gathered by order of the new French Government in the square before the church of the Crucified Lord (24). There they planted the Tree of Liberty (25) and he raised the French flag, at the same time burning in the fire the privilege-papers of the nobles, announcing that the French Government 's official seal wrote on the one side “Freedom” and on the other “Equality”. They sent to the Kastro men who took the regalia which the Provveditore had worn as the representative of the Venetian Patriciate (26), and it was thrown onto the fire and burnt. All the island's nobles were dancing with master Emanuel Kaloutsis leading the dance, and singing this ditty;

“Nobles not wanted
the French declare,
and the Golden Book (27)
has been burned in the square.”

Everyone had on their hat a red ribbon, called a cockade in Italian. They stood in two rows and one from each row would enter the church together and became brothers (28). The priest read to them the blessing of brotherhood and many on this day became brothers. And there was a great celebration on that day. In this manner the Island of Kythera submitted to the French, as did the other islands, that is to say, Corfu, Cephalonia, Zakynthos and all the possessions of the Venetians without any resistance (29).

>1797, October 20.
Father Theodore Karydis and Father Manolis Glytsos went to Corfu, sent by the island's villagers, concerning local matters. This was resented by the nobles who had had the control over the courts in the past, but the previously mentioned Commissioner on arriving had appointed and established new magistrates, naming them provisional municipal councillors, who had the power to govern our land (30).

>1798, April 30.
An English ship came and going to Avlemonas captured within the harbour a Cephalonian boat, claiming, as they were at war, that it was French. Afterwards they let the people go and burnt the boat. On the same day a French frigate reached Kapsali bringing sixty soldiers to protect the island, as well as a Zakynthian named Kladis as Commissioner, with the power to bring order to the land and to reorganise the Tribunals which he placed in another order, and instead of naming them as before 'Provisional Municipal' he called them 'General', he decreased the number of village headmen, making them only four, because before there had been twenty, and the remaining tribunals remained in the hands of the Nobles. The French Republic does not want anyone to address those from the previous nobility as “Lord”, but only as “brothers,” nor to honour anyone as “Excellency” as previously.

On the same night, as the first of May dawned the above mentioned English boat sent four feluccas (long boats) with soldiers and they came to Kapsali. They captured the French frigate as it happened to be without the Commissioner and his soldiers, who were ashore. And in that melee twelve French were killed and a few English.

On the seventeenth of the above month, May, on the Monday of the Holy Spirit the aforesaid Commissioner came to Potamos, the town of Our Lady, accompanied by the Nobles, the Magistrates and many others from the villages, and raised outside the Tower the Tree of Liberty with dances and drums. On the 1June the aforesaid Commissioner left to go to Zakynthos.

>1798, June 1.
There were five strong earthquakes. The same again on the second, another three. The same happened every second day. There were two earthquakes each time.

>1798, June 18, Friday.
In the middle of the day there was a great and terrible earthquake, such as never had happened before, to the extent that the cross on the bell-tower of St Charalambos fell down, and the water from the spring of Kamarios flowed very murky as if it were full of clay. It was a marvel to behold. The same happened in the area of the Church of the Saviour at Katharaki; the earth split open, where it was stone. Also the bell-tower of St. Nicolas of Potiri (31) was split, also the three columns, and the fort's wall was broken in three places. Also at Mitata it destroyed some towers belonging to Profantzis Stais, and many other houses at other places on the island. At Avlemonas, at the place called Mertia a part of the cliff fell into the sea. And at Chora at the Borgo, the middle sandstone block with a votive lamp, from the arch of the church of the Saviour, fell down; and the rest remained in place. The pulpit of St. Anna's church cracked from one side to the other. Similarly at the town of Our Lady (32) two churches were cracked and the church of St. Charalambos was split asunder. We heard that in Crete, at Iraklion the same earthquake caused a town to sink.

>1798, July 1.
We learned that Bonaparte went to Malta with a French fleet; he conquered and subjected Malta to his dominion (33).

>1798 July 8.
There was an earthquake and in the night, around dawn of the ninth there were another four, and another during the day.

>1798, September 26.
A Spetsiot named Theodorakis came; sent by the Patriarchate from Constantinople, and from the Turkish King with letters saying that the fleets of the three kingdoms (Turkish, Russian and British) were coming to free all the islands from the French and to liberate all the lands (34).

>1798, September 27.
The fleet appeared off Cape Maleas and on the twenty-eigthth they arrived and anchored at Avlemonas. They were Russian and Turkish ships, in total forty, of which twenty-five were huge battleships. I went with the Bishop to Avlemonas. On seeing them the French from the Kastelli fired two cannon balls at the foremast of the first ship, and then again to its landwards. The ship fired six cannon balls at the Kastelli (35) and at once the French surrendered, taking with them their standard and their rifles. They were in total thirty-five, some of whom were Venetians who had been kept here to defend the land. These were taken onto the ships which the Russians commanded. The Moscovites took the Kastellli and hoisted their flag. Afterwards they marched two thousand soldiers overland to the Kastro, dragging two cannons as far as Manitohori. The Bishop greeted the two admirals. They commandeered the house of Nicolas Karvelas (36). and on the first October they started the battle, firing at the Kastro two hundred and thirty-two cannon balls and about 3,000 riffle-shots. Three French and three Turks were killed. A white flag was raised and the war stopped. The officers spoke and reached an agreement; the French surrendered, the Russians entered the Kastro and the Turks returned to their ships. But there was much robbery and pillage (37).

>1798, October 6.
The fleet set sail for Zakynthos and in seven days they sent a swift boat and arrested three nobles, the consul Levounis who was a local magistrate, doctor Manolis Mormoris and Pavlos Dantonis. After taking them as far as Korone, they freed them. They also sought doctor Manolaki Kaloutsis but they did not find him (38). While the fleet was sailing to Zakynthos and Cephalonia they were suddenly commanded to go to Preveza , where, because of the Turks there was a great spilling of blood. Here the fleet left as a garrison twelve Russians and ten Turks, giving permission to the headmen and the magistrates of all the villages to judge the people's disputes, until they had subjected the remaining islands.

>1798. October 25
There was a great flood and it entered into the cells (39) of St. Charalambos.

>1798, December 1.
Father Theodoros, son of the late Dimitris Glezos together with Georgios Dourentes has left, sent to Corfu by the Moscovite Commander, to the royal admirals who are with the Russo-Ottoman fleet, on matters concerning our country.

>1799, January 30.
The afore mentioned Dourentes returned from Corfu and brought orders that the Tribunal be held in Chora. They appointed as President the doctor Emmanuel Stais and he again took over the power which the headmen had held in the villages.

>1799, in February.
With the agreement of the four districts (40) the Tribunal was set up in Mylopotamos, in the house of George Malanos, opposite the Church of the Saviour. This annoyed the nobles because we do not submit to them (41).

>1799, March 10.
Father Theodoros returned from Corfu but all the Kytherians would not accept the dispatches which he had brought. They were harmful to them and they wished to be governed by the manifesto (42) which had originally been given.

>1799, May 6
There was a great and terrible earthquake.

>1799, May 12.
The brothers Tzanetos and Panagiotakis Kasimatis being at the feast of St. Theodore (43) hit Father Dimitris Andronikos of Kousounari and there followed a brawl which provoked the people. The villagers from Logothetianika and others attacked and killed them, and threw the corpses into Stais' vineyard where they lay there for two days. Others came, loaded them onto mules and took them to Chora to bury them. Both had been the cause of many offenses to the villagers (44).

The brothers Tzanetos and Panagiotis Kasimatis being at the Feast of St. Theodore at the time of the litany of the Holy Relic, one of them hit Father Dimitris Andronikos of Kousounari and the priest's headgear fell to the ground. Then the priest shouted “My brother Christians, you yourselves see the contempt which they show me.” After the priest's cry there was great commotion among the people and all the villagers of Logothetianika and others rose to seize him. Seeing the fearful anger of all the people he was afraid and went into the church, where he entered into the Holy Sanctuary and there they went to catch him. Then the Abbot of the Monastery said, “My brother Christians do not murder him within the Sanctuary, because the Church will no longer be able to officiate.” They then took him away from the sanctuary and took him to the place of judgment, outside Stais' vineyard. With billhooks, with skewers, with stones they killed him. They left him still breathing a little, with no longer the strength to speak and returned seeking his brother. They found him in a cell, crouching in a basket where he had been hidden by a nun who lived in this cell. Where he was hidden he could not be seen. One was holding a skewer and he pierced the basket. The man screamed and thus revealed they immediately took him to the place where his brother was. Then he lifted his hand in a cursing gesture at him. He was then killed in the same manner as the other. Afterwards the crowd shouted that whoever did not throw a stone at the two dead bodies would never be forgiven. They covered them with stones and so they remained covered for two days. Kaloutsis sent one of his people, who went at night, placed the dead bodies in two sacks, loaded them on a mule and brought and buried them within the walled Borgo. Both were the cause of many offenses and injustices. This that I have written was told to me by a man, very well-known to me, who was present and witnessed the particulars with his own eyes (45).

>1799, May 19.
We again sent Father Theodore Glezos and Constantine Moustakos.

>1799, June 7.
Doctor Emmanuel Stais left to escape the rage of the the people (46).

>1799 October 28.
Reverend Master Father Antonios Darmaros Lazanis came from Constantinople, an archimandrite from Russia.

>1799, November 3.
Doctor Stais returned from Zakynthos.

>1800, March 30.
All the villagers sent to Constantinople Father Gregorios Aronis, son of Dimitris, to Damaras, for Russia consul (47), to ask for help against the hardships which the villagers were suffering under the Russian Commander. And the priest returned on the 20 May and brought a letter telling them to have patience.

>1800, July 14.
The Russian fleet passed by and took away the Russian Commander in a cutter with all his men. They left on the 15 July 1800, Sunday.

>1800, July 15.
We took from her monastery and brought here the Holy Icon of the Virgin of the Myrtles, to St, Charalambos at Mylopotamos for fear of the fleet, and it remained here until the 23 September, when we returned the Icon to her monastery.

>1800. July 17.
All the headmen gathered and went to the Kastro taking possession of it, as it had remained bereft of any command (48).

>1800. July 22 Sunday.
All the headmen of the island gathered and went with the village militias and many others to Chora; they went to the Kastro, nobles and villagers together, to the Palace (49) in order that they there be reconciled and stop disputing. They did not agree on these affairs and there was discord. At the palace they killed Doctor Emmanuel Stais and Georgios Dourentis. Others tried to flee but the gates of the Castro were locked so they hid, but were found. Initially Master Pavlos Dantonis and then Master John Mahariotis who were important and worthy individuals, were found and murdered. These had allied themselves with the Russian and had wanted to subjugate all the island to their control, seeking only their own advantage, for which they received the ultimate punishment. Present at all this was our Bishop Anthimos. He pleaded but to no avail.
(From Alc. Lastiotis' version)

All the island's Headmen with the village militias and many others gathered in Chora and went to the Kastro, nobles and villagers together, to the Palace to be reconciled and to stop disagreements. But they did not agree on these affairs and there was disorder and in the palace they killed Master Doctor Emmanuel Stais and Georgios Dourentis. The rest tired to flee but the gates of the Kastro were locked and they hid. Master Doctor John Mahariotis hid in the lower watchtower where the cisterns are. Someone running, saw where he went. When he was discovered he said to him, “In the Lord and in you is my hope. I promise you a great reward. Take these two gold watches which I have with me and protect me; do not betray me.”
He did not deign to accept, but notified the others, who seized and gave him his end at the lower sea-wall of the Kastro. Master Pavlos Dantonis was found, seized and killed, where he had hid in Bravou's house (50). These were people of great importance, the best of all the island's inhabitants. They had co-operated with the Russian Government and wished to subjugate all the island under their control, seeking only their own advantage, for which they received the ultimate punishment. Bishop Anthimos pleaded but it was impossible for him to be heard.

Georgios Belesis was the leader of the riot. Stais had done him an injustice and he swore revenge against him. All the lands that Stais held at Kakoprino, in the area of Manitohori, were holdings of relatives of Belesis. It was the rightful inheritance of a woman, a very close relative of the aforesaid Georgios Belesis, who had gone to Zakynthos and stayed, becoming established there. On departing she had left as trustee Doctor Emmanuel Stais. Instead of being trustee he became the owner of this excellent estate.

For this reason the aforesaid Georgios Belesis looked upon the doctor as his greatest enemy. Before anyone else learned his intentions, he went to Dokana, found Basil Gletzos and told him what he had irrevocably decided to do; and that he should be a collaborator. The latter replied he should never do that deed. But when that true Christian saw that Belesis was determined in his diabolical decision, fearing that the latter would turn against him, he promised he also would be with them, but when they came to Manitohori, to the field of Doctor Manolis Mormoris, using the excuse that he had a call of nature he returned to his home.

Belesis would boast that he had five unconquerable forts, and with his own, six. That is that he had five sons who were the finest youths, wherever on the island. He took the estate that Stais had taken, but kept it for only a little while. (From the version of Father Daniel Varipatis.) (51)

>1800, August 1.
The Tribunal was established in Aroniadika, transferred from Mylopotamos.

>1800, August 11.
The Bishop Anthimos came with the Most Reverend Makarios Stais, previously of Reon (52) and with many others. They came to all the villages and went to Potamos, preaching at St. Theodore, where all had gathered that there should be love and peace among the people, and the terrors and unrest should cease.

>1800, September 14.
We gathered, fifty persons in all, and went from village to village and admonished the common people to keep the peace. These fifty were priests and worthy elders. They warned that whoever creates causes for disputes would be punished.

>1800, October 19.
The two noble ladies, the mistresses Drakoula (53) and Ekaterina, daughters of Valerios Kasimatis, asked permission from the headmen and left the island by night as they were in great fear.

>1800, the month October.
A boat sailing past Chitra (54), chased by another vessel, rushed to enter Kapsali and fell upon the rocks terrified. It had various merchandise which was all looted, woollen cloths (felts), velvets, wooden planks, cloves and many types of paper. The crew of the boat only managed to save their lives (55).

>1801, late May.
The ladies Drakoula and Ekaterina came from Constantinople, stopped at Marathonisi and went to Corfu.

>1801, June 8.
The banner of the Republic of the Heptanese, which is supported by all the kings, was raised at the Kastelli at Avlemonas, and on the sixteenth at the Kastro (56).

>1802, September 5.
An English ship coming from Athens to anchor at Avlemonas was loaded with crates packed with various precious marble statues, and because the crew was asleep it struck a rock and broke-up. The marbles in the crates sank into the deep of the sea, only the people were saved, naked. The owner of the marbles who Master Emmanuel Kaloutsis welcomed and entertained was the secretary of the Bailo (57) in Constantinople. Milord sent for divers who came and raised some crates and he gave 500 “grossia” for each crate. Forty thousand “grossia” he gave them so that they would raise all of them for him. He also had a Slavonic (58) boat hired to guard the marbles, as well as other caiques and feluccas. A villager from Aloizianika going there at night to salvage a barrel was killed by the Slavones. He even went to Malta to bring the equipment to raise the remaining marbles. The ambassador (59) himself came here and afterwards went to Malta. He expressed much gratitude to Kaloutsis, presenting him with rich gifts as he had helped his secretary (60).

>1802, December 9.
The new Delegate (61), Master E. Metaxas arrived. He was a Cephalonian, sent here to our island as Judge by the Republic and having as an escort 75 Moscovites and 100 Arvanites (62). He was a wise man but he did much damage to the place. He appointed and sent 500 persons to catch the murderers who had killed the nobles. Initially they caught Georgios Belesis, Petros Maselos and Georgios Malanos; they were caught and tortured on the 24 December. On the 7 July they freed Malanos and others, except for Belesis and Petros Kolovelonis. Metaxas caught the Headmen and took double the money which they had taken from the Tribunals. He extracted the government dues for four years and many poor people not being able to pay left the island with their families. He exiled all the Beleses and many others, confiscating their properties .

>1803, July 9.
The new delegate, by name Alexander Solomos, the Russian appointed legal officer and judge for the island came from Zakynthos, accompanied by the two noble ladies, Drakoula and Ekaterini, as well as John Sophios and Theodoros Moulos who had gone to Corfu to avoid paying the fourfold dues, but they accomplished nothing. In fact all the leaders were tortured and some priests were suspended from religious duties for the rest of their lives. They went to charge Father Georgios Sophios and he resisted, so they did great damage to his property and set fire to his house, but he repaid the two envoys with one hundred blows and then let them go.

>1803, July 18.
Someone else took the position of Delegate and Alexander left for Corfu.

>1804, May 7.
They shipped off on a Russian boat the two prisoners Petros Maselos and Georgios Belesis who had been imprisoned for the heinous murders, and who were kept in strict security as Dimitrakis Belesis was also caught in Constantinople and was taken to Corfu in chains.

>1805, July 21.
At Zakynthos they executed Dimitrakis Belesis, who was convicted for the murders during the anarchy.

>1805, September 6.
The new chancellor (63) Dionysios Arvanitakis has come from Zakynthos. Vretos Frilingos, son of the late Antonis, finished building the windmill (64).

>1806, July22.
There were three earthquakes and again on the 10 August there were five earthquakes. Then there was a great wine harvest.

>1806, September 28, Friday.
There was a huge earthquake.

>1806, October 5, Friday.
A lightning bolt fell in Kastrisianika and burnt four oxen.

>1806, October 16.
There was an amazing flood.

>1808 February 19.
Our island was white with snow which reached 15 spans (65) in depth, and in places even more.

>1808, April 14.
There was a huge earthquake.

>1808, May 21.
Anasis Smyrlis killed Georgiakis Vovos his brother-in-law; both were residents of Potamos.

>1808, June 4, Thursday.
There were two powerful earthquakes.

>1808, November 18, Wednesday.
Lightning fell at the town of Our Lady, Potamos, at a place near St. Kyriaki and burnt Pseftoyiannis, a female child, one ox and a donkey.

>1807, September 17.
The consecration of the Holy church of the All-Holy Mother of God, the Lady of the Myrtles took place in the Kastro, conducted by the Most Reverend Anthimos (66).

>1807, November 22.
God caused the rain to fall and then the sowing started.

>1808, February 15.
The French came again and as Commander came the God-cursed Poerios who did much evil to the place (67).

>1809, March 1.
The Mistress Drakoula Kasimatis left; she left for Zakynthos summoned there by the Tribunal (68).

>1809, March 22. Monday of Holy Week.
John Paspalas of Logothetianika killed his legal wife because he loved his neighbour, the widow Malitaina, who was taken by the Magistrate, sat on a donkey and paraded in the square. She was paraded by the soldiers with a paper helmet on her head.

>1809, March 23.
Father Panagiotis Lichopiris from Karvounades came to blows with Petros Maselos who had been exiled and returned. The priest was taken before the magistrate because he had taken Petros' wife and sinned, and on the Wednesday of Holy Week they cut off his beard in front of the Church of the Crucified Christ in Chora. And again they put him in prison and on the 25 March they took the priest's woman and did the same to her as had been done with Malitaina (69). Malitaina was then exiled as was the above mentioned priest's woman, and the priest was banned from all priestly duties and freed from his bonds. One of those present at the time when they were cutting the priest's hair, called Tzannios Chavalas, told him: “Why cry? If you wanted to be a priest you would not do such things.” And he took the beard and tied it round the neck of his hunting-dog which he much loved, but in the morning he found the dog dead.

>1809, June 24.
The cursed Poerios has left and another named Metaxas, a Cephalonian, has come to be Commander of the military.

>1809, July 25.
The new Chancellor (70) has come, Master John Kondoleon, a compatriot, to hold the highest position, and the Zakynthian, Dionysios Arvanitakis has left.

>1809, September 27.
Two English frigates came to Avlemonas and fought with the French who were in command and the English defeated the French. On the twenty-eigth of the same month they landed cannons at Brouleas and brought them on wagons to Trahilas opposite the Kastro and gave fierce battle, the English firing from Trahilas otherwise called Palameda. The French also fired cannons and killed Benetos Levounis and a girl named Diamanda, also wounded was a servant named Basil. On the 30 September the French surrendered the Kastro. Two days before, Master Dimitrios Lazarettos guided the English, leading them to Karvelas and from there to the Kastro. The Russians and the French boarded the English ships and left.

>1812, January 22. .
Our island was white with snow and the waters froze four spans in thickness, and it lasted for six days. The birds were freezing and entered the houses. Then it was that Bonaparte's vast armies were lost in Russia.

>1814, April 8.
Georgakis Travasaros, son of late Panagiotis Velonas from Alexandrades, killed his brother John and immediately was caught, imprisoned, and on the 9 April executed at the bridge at Fatsades. (According to the version of Alc. Lastiotis.)

Georgakis Travasaros son of late Panagiotis Velonas from Alexandrades, killed his brother, John. This man's history is truly strange. He was a good working man and for a person from a village, truly courteous. He stole a hard-working woman from Chora, by name Sophoula of the Lourentzos family. She did not appear to be against the abduction. The time came for them to stay together. She said to him; “I have the habit, Georgaki, of cleansing myself of fleas. You lie down and I will return immediately.” He heard her and was unperturbed. But she, on her part very quietly fled. When a considerable time had passed he rose and looked for her, but he would not deign to chase after her.

He took a wife from the village of Drymona, from the Mageros family, nasty, loud-mouthed and quick tempered. She quarrelled often with her sister-in-law. She persuaded her husband (oh the heinous crime!) to kill his brother. He had separated the house with a dividing wall; he placed his rifle in a slit and shot him; Georgiaki killed John. The scheming of conniving women. He was caught at once, imprisoned and on the 9 April taken to the bridge at Fatsades to be executed by firing squad. He was blindfolded, made to kneel, and they fired. His clothing was dusted by the rifles' shots but he was unharmed. Then he gained courage, rose, untied his blindfold, hoping he may be freed. All those present shouted “He is innocent, he must be freed!” The man in charge whose name History has not given to us said, “I am sent by the Government to order that he be killed and buried.” And he ordered the Priest to search him as he may be in possession of some amulet. The priest searched him and he was wearing a small icon of Our Lady of the Myrtles. The priest took it. They blindfolded him, made him kneel and all the rifles shot at him and they killed him. And there they buried him in the gorge of Fatsades among the young oleanders.
(According to the version of Varipatis.)

>1815, August 3.
There was a terrible earthquake at two in the night.

>1816, May 7, Sunday.
The Most Reverend and worthy of eternal memory, the sainted Bishop of Kythera, Anthimos, aged 58, head priest for 34 years and 48 days has gone to Eternity. He was a most fine, compassionate, charitable and humane man.

>1817, May 9.
Newton Philip, the English Commander left; no replacement.
(According to Lastiotis' version.)
Newton Philip, the English Commander has left. During his term of government the official structure for storing the food supplies of the military was built, known as the Granary, and the Harbour-cleansing Station43 at Kapsali, Brilliant regal buildings then, now hardly functioning.(According to Varipatis' version.)


>Explanatory Notes
1204 The Fourth Crusade: Kythera acquired by Venetian freebooter Venier; gradually passed into the full control of Venice. Venetian Empire a forerunner of a global mercantile conglomerate; possessions required to safe guard her trade routes; religious tolerance for the locals to preserve stability.

The social structure was a copy of Venice; only hereditary nobles (usually of Italian origin but in time Hellenised) were allowed to vote in the Conclave and be elected to the various administrative offices. The population consisted of very few townspeople,(artisans and tradesmen,) ; and the villagers, some of whom could be small landholders, tenant farmers, or labourers.

1645-1669 With the gradual fall of Crete to the Turks, the population increased by refugees from all three classes.

1797 Treaty of Campoforno; Venetian possessions ceded to the French (Napoleon) who brought the promise of new liberal ideas.

1798 The Russian-Turkish forces take Kythera and the Ionian islands. The attempt to enforce a conservative constitution (1800) on the new Republic of the Seven Islands, under the protection of Russia but obliged to pay 7,000 “grossia” yearly to the Sultan, is resisted by the masses but supported by the nobles.

1807 Treaty of Tilsit: Russia surrenders all her rights in the Mediterranean to Napoleon.

1809 The English landed on Kythera.

1815 The Congress of Vienna establishes the Republic of the United States of the Ionian Islands; initially to be ruled by England for 10 years, then to be an independent English Protectorate.

As T. Gallant says in his “Experiencing Dominion” the English did not know how to consider the Ionian islanders: “were they Mediterranean Irish or European aborigines?”

>Footnotes:

(1) Enosis=Union with Greece. (Translator's note)

(2) As the second part was never published, neither was the chronicle.

(3) This work was given to me in a handwritten copy t by Dr. Dionysios Kaloutsis, which we hope to publish in the next issue of the Kytherian Review.

(4) Exo=the northern part of the island, referred to as the outer part.

(5) Town of our Lady = Potamos

(6) The Provveditore- the highest Venetian appointed official on the island.

(7) Ragionato = 'meaning a large landowner, who because of his wealth enjoyed certain political privileges. This is the explanation given by Stathis, but the actual meaning is accountant, possibly because of his wealth he was appointed controller of accounts, an important position in the local administration.

(8) This part of the chronicle was published by D. Alvanakis in the second volume of the Kytherian Yearbook (1912-13), p.60.

(9) Vlachia. A general term used loosely by Kytherians to denote areas to the north,.

(10) In a later entry of 11 August 1800 Makarios is referred to as the former Bishop of Reon, therefore he must have served as Bishop of Reon and Prestos, that is to say bishop of Kynouria, an area on the eastern side of the Peloponnese. Hence his nickname 'Prastos'.

(11) Grossia = certain coins

(12) Ragionato – a chief accountant, the Controller of Accountants for the island, a position to which he would have been appointed because of his great wealth.

(13) Doctor -title given to any who had a higher education. They had possibly studied law as many sons of the rich families studied in Italy, usually Padua.

(14) In the fort in the Lower Town of Mylopotamos

(15) A famous Greek privateer and insurgent

(16) The excerpt from the chronicle 'concerning Katsonis' by Logothetis included by D. Alvanakis in the Kytherian Yearbook 2, (1912-13) P 66 ends at this point.

(17) This concerns Lambros Katsonis' second arrival in Kythera. After issuing his famous protest to the Russian-Turkish peace of Iasi/Jassy, Katsonis went to Porto-Kagio. Deserted by the Russians, without support from the Maniots and harried by the Turkish fleet assisted by the French he was forced to flee for the second time to Kythera from where he went to Ithaki, then to Parga and finally to Russia where after three years of living privately he died (1804),

(18) Honey-comb= unstrained honey with the wax.

(19) National cemetery=Here the text is ambiguous; it could mean a special area reserved for Venetian citizens, or it could refer to a cemetery for non-Orthodox, not real Christians in the writer's view.

(20) Prebelekia = privileges. Formal papers or titles for one entitled to belong to the 'Noble' class..

(21) Sklavounos = A term usually used for Slav peoples from Dalmatia, often used as mercenaries.

(22) This refers to the French General Gentili (part of Napoleon's army) sending from Zankynthos to Kythera Vincent Renault to establish French sovereignty and change the government on the island.

(23) Borgo = The walled area next to the Castro in Chora, where the homes of the nobles were.

(24) Metropolitan church in the capital of Kythera.

(25) A tree planted as a symbol of the new Liberty established by the French Revolutionaries..

(26) Patriciate- the Venetian nobility, the ruling class.

(27) The Golden Book = Libro d'oro = where the names of the nobles were recorded.

(28) Concerning the celebrations and the planting of Trees of Liberty, the burning of titles etc. see Chiotis' History of the Heptanese 3; and G. Mauvrogiannis' History of the Ionian Islands 2 (1797-1815).

(29) This entry and the following were published by D. Alvanakis in the Kytherian Yearbook .2 (1912-1913) P.82.

(30) “Vincent Renault appointed on the island a temporary government of five members under the supervision of the previous Provveditore. With the co-operation of the then French Vice-Consul on Kythera he created the Municipality of Kythera with fifteen members, choosing these from the most respectable and liberal citizens. He divided these into three committees to oversee taxation, and did his upmost to ensure there would be total equality and goodwill between the citizens.” (Chiotis, History of the Heptanese Vol.1 P599)

(31) Within the fort of Kato Chora

(32) Potamos

(33) The Fall of Malta to Napoleon happened towards the end of May 1798. It was made known by a letter from Napoleon himself to the three French Prefects of the three nomes (nome = the French Prefecture) of the Heptanese Kythera belonged to the Aegean Prefecture, consisting of the islands of Zakynthos, the Strophades and the Kytheras . The event was celebrated throughout the Ionian Islands.

(34) Theodorakis was one of the agents who in 1798 after the declaration of the French-Russian war was sent from Constantinople to the Ionian islands. These agents were carriers of letters from the Russian Vice-Admiral Theodore Ushakov, and encyclicals from the Patriarch Gregory V to the clergy and chief-magistrates of the islands, in which the French Republicans were represented to the Ionian people as “organs of the Devil, who is forever seeking the destruction of the human race.”

(35) Kastelli , A small Venetian fort built at the entrance of the harbour of Avlemonas.

(36) The area on the northern entrance to Chora is still called Karbelianika. But the site of the actual house is unknown.

(37) Concerning the taking of Kythera by the Russo-Turkish forces see Chiotis' History of the Heptanese 3

(38) P682-683, Mavrogiannis' History of the Ionian Islands 1 (1797-1815) P197-198.
The present chronicle was published up to this point by D..Alvanakis in the Kytherian Yearbook 2 (1912-1918) p26.

(39) Monastic cells.

(40) The island had been divided into 5 districts; the 5th being Chora where the nobles lived.

(41) “;During the Russo-Turkish occupation the island's inhabitants would submit neither to the Admirals' orders nor to those of the Senate. The distance and difficulty of travel encouraged the island's people to disobedience towards the local authorities, and to scorn the commands sent from afar and at rare intervals by the Central Government.. The island's villages had elected in their own way their Headmen or Magistrates, and the people of the town (Chora) at a special meeting had elected their own Magistrates. These met and sat in judgment on all citizens' affairs and then resolved the issues presented to them. They were in other words literally revolutionary courts.” Mavrogiannis, History of the Ionian Islands, 1 (1797-1815).

(42) The French system, constituted by Renault.

(43) Monastery/shrine near Logothetianika

(44) As related in the version published by A. Lastiotis

(45) As related in the version of Logothetis' Chronicle included in that of Father Daniel Varipatis- Chryseas. It is considered that the authentic version is that published by Alc. Lastiotis. Father Daniel Varipatis corrupted the original by adding details which he had from others, and which until to-day are part of the oral tradition. Other additions made by Father Varipatis are noticed in his version for the dates 22 July 1800, 8 April 1814. and 9 May 1817.

(46) The term “doctor” was applied to those with a higher education, university degree, as well as to notaries and medical practitioners

(47) Damaras -B. Tomaras = the Russian Ambassador at Constantinople.. The term 'Bailos' was the title of the Venetian representative to the Ottoman court, hence in common use for ambassador or consul.

(48) “The Headmen with many armed villagers came to the kastro and invited the Nobles to meet on the 22 of the same month as to submit to them their proposals, which they said, they hoped would lead to a reconciliation between the two classes, the People and the Nobles. Because previously some people had threatened to kill Emmanuel Stais, one of the Island's most aristocratic Nobles, the villagers went to his home and convinced him of their friendliness and in fact begged him not to leave the island, saying that they wished to have him as their leader and protector. Believing in the fraudulent words of the villagers, the unfortunate Stais remained, unperturbed.” G. Mavrogiannis, History of the Ionian Islands, 1 (1797-1815.) p336.

(49) The house of the Provveditiore

(50) The Bravou's house would have been within the kastro; one of those which were destroyed; all the building materials were removed and not a trace of them remained.In this as in the previous entry of the 12 May1799, we note that the most authentic version of Father Logothetis' chronicle is that of Alc. Lastiotis. Father Varipatis embellished the original adding details which he heard from others and which popular tradition largely preserves to this day. The historian Chiotis writes. “the lady Drakoula, wife of Emmanuel Stais, an aristocratic and haughty man, encouraged her husband to ignore the villagers' claims. He was convinced and abused the villagers at the council. Belesis, one of the leaders of the villagers, sprang armed against Stais, bared his dagger and murdered him.” History of the Heptanese. Vol 8. P.758.

(51) The historian Maurogiannis writes; “On the 22 the villagers returned to the Town as had been arranged. The Bishop invited by them to the assembly, spoke, calling to all in the name of the All-Powerful God, for peace and harmony. Then all transferred to the fort, to the palace of the governor, where were gathered the nobles. Each hoped that the council which had started in such a Christian manner would also end in a Christian fashion, but from the villagers' proposals it quickly became clear that the matter was destined to end otherwise. Firstly the villagers proposed to Stais that he refund to them all of their paid taxes and all of the special contributions that had been levied as rent for the soldiers' lodging during the French overlordship. Secondly that he refund what they had paid for the upkeep of the Russo-Turkish force; thirdly and lastly that he compensate them for what they had outlaid in sending missions of delegates to Admiral Ushakov and Consul Tomaras to defend themselves against the defamatory accusations made by the island's previous military commander against them, at the prompting of Stais. Stais understood that all these demands were simply a cover for their other intentions, nevertheless to save himself from the present danger he apologised for these alleged injustices and at the same time promised to pay all the sums demanded within 8 days as they wanted; once they presented to him the accounts of the amounts they had paid. At this answer by Stais, the villagers as if on a signal fell upon him with rifles and knives, and with continuous blows to the body they left him on the ground no longer breathing. Others attacked two other nobles, his relatives, G. Lorentzos (G. Dourentis) and another, slaughtering them in a similar way. A third named Mahairiotis fled into the arms of the Bishop, who was present, but they also slaughtered him, even as the terror-stricken Bishop entreated the murderers that he be spared .” History of the Ionian Islands, Vol1 (1797-1815) p 336-337.

(52) Bishopric of Reon and Prestos which were included in the see of Kynouria.

(53) The widow of the murdered Emmanuel Stais.

(54) Chitra= A large egg-shaped rock outside the entrance to the harbour of Kapsali

(55) The looting of this boat by the villagers stopped the continuous looting of houses, pillaging of shops, burning of country villas etc which followed the murders. Chiotis, History of the Heptanese, Vol. 3 p. 768.

(56) This was the banner of the Republic of the United 7 Islands constituted after the Russo-Turkish treaty of 1800 by which the Ottoman Empire was recognised as overlord, and Russia undertook the role of Protector but also guaranteed their autonomye.

(57) The English representative in Constantinople, Lord Elgin.

(58) Slavoness. A term applied to various Slav races, especially to those who lived along the Dalmatian coast.

(59) Lord Elgin, the English representative in Constantinople

(60) This refers to the well known wreck of the ship Mentor, full of ancient marble statues which Lord Elgin transferred from Greece to England. About this ship wreck see the useful study by Ant. Myliarakis “About the Elgin Marbles” in the periodical “Estia” 1888, p. 669-676. In this study is published the above entry by Logothetis (p.671-713).
According to Myliarakis, Logothetis errs in saying that the shipwreck was caused because the crew was sleeping. The captain's statement made before the British Vice-Consul on Kythera, Emm. Kaloutsis, attributes the wreck to the W.S.W wind which forced them to seek shelter at Avlemonas. They sank two anchors but they did not hold; they cut the mooring lines and set the sails to achieve a turn but during the turning the ship's prow struck forcefully on the rocks and she sank.

(61) Representative, trustee,

(62) Usually Christians form Northern Epirus/Albania.

(63) Different terms are used for the highest government official, fairly indiscriminately

(64) According tho the Alk. Lastiotis' version. In Daniel Varipatis' manuscript- “Vretos Frilingos son of the late Antonis has finished the first windmill which was built on our island.”

(65) Span, an old measurement usually the distance between the thumb and the little finger of an outstretched hand.

(66) The church was previously dedicated to the Latin rite (Catholic).

(67) According to Daniel Varipatis' version after the entry about the windmill of 1805 is the entry of the 19 Februaray1808, after this the entry of 17 September 1807 and after that the entry of February 1808, omitting the others. The disturbance of the chronological sequence of the chronicle in both copies suggests that the same occurred in the original.

(68) This entry is also omitted in Varipatis' version. The following entries to 22 January 1812 do not appear in Lastiotis' manuscript , one or more of the unnumbered pages being cut out and lost.

(69) The following and especially the scene with Chavalas do not seem genuine to us, because of their vocabulary, but were added by Varipatis having learned this from the oral tradition preserved by the people.

(70) Various terms are used for the supreme authority on the island. By the constitution of 1800 the term chancellor was used for the President of the ruling Council with executive powers.

(71) Trahilas=the headlland on the southern side of the Kastro.

(72) This chronicle was also published by D. Alvanakis in the Kytherian Yearbook (1909) P 28-29

(73) Lastiotis' version is a truer copy of Logothetis' chronicle. Varipatis' version has many additions.

(74) Again Lastiotis' version appears to be the truer text.

Translated by Hariklia Castrisios

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