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submitted by Peter Makarthis on 09.05.2004

S.Peter & Co Inverell NSW Australia

A Letterhead from S.Peter & Co Inverell listing other premises at Tingha and Bundarra 1908.Peter Cosmas Sourry from Potamos was the proprietor.

History > Documents

submitted by James Victor Prineas on 10.04.2004

Ionian Flag 1800-1807

Information about this flag can be found in the General History category of this site.

History > Documents

submitted by James Victor Prineas on 24.02.2007

Ionian Flag 1815-1864


Venetian Rule, 1386-1797.

Venice acquired the Ionian Islands off the western coast of Greece in 1386. Venice was a major naval power, and the islands were extremely important for control of access to the Adriatic Sea. After the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718 all that remained of the Venetian Empire was the Dalmatian Coast and the Ionian Islands.

French Rule, 1797-1800.

In 1796 Napoleon defeated the Austrians and Piedmontese in a series of battles, and set up the Lombard Republic on 16 May 1796. In March-April 1797 Napoleon crossed the Alps to attack Austria, but the people of Venetia and Tyrol rose up against the French. Napoleon was in danger of being cut off, and by the preliminary Peace of Leoben on 18 April 1797 much Venetian territory (Dalmatia, Istria, and region between the Oglio and Po) was ceded to Austria. Austria in return recognised the French puppet Cisalpine Republic in northern Italy. But in May 1797 France declared war on what was left of Venice, occupying it and the Ionian Islands. By the Treaty of Campo Formio on 17 October 1797 Austria received Dalmatia, Istria and the city of Venice, but France retained the Ionian Islands.

Russian Rule, 1800-1807.

In December 1798 Russia allied with Britain (partly because the new tsar had proclaimed himself Grand Master of the Order of St. John), and in the 1799 War of the Second Coalition, Austrian and Russian forces captured virtually all of France's conquests in northern Italy of 1796-97. France surrendered the Ionian Islands to Russia, which in 1800 set up the protectorate of the Septinsular Republic. The seven islands were known to the ancient Greeks as Heptanesus, and consisted of Corfu, Paxos, Leukas, Ithaca, Cephalonia, Zante, and Cerigo.

French Rule, 1807-1815.

The War of the Fourth Coalition saw the disintegration of the Russian army, and by the Treaty of Tilsit (7-9 July 1807) Russia reluctantly became an ally of the French and ceded the Ionian Islands to France. After the Austrian defeat at Wagram, Austria ceded to the French by the Treaty of Schönbrunn (14 October 1809) all lands beyond the Save River including Villach, Istria, Hungarian Dalmatia and Ragusa. France organised these together with the Ionian Islands into the Illyrian Provinces ruled directly from Paris.

British Rule, 1815-1864.

French defeat in 1814 led to British occupation of the Ionian Islands. The Congress of Vienna in June 1815 does not seem to have addressed the question of the Ionian Islands, but by a separate treaty on 5 November 1815 the British set up a Protectorate of the Ionian Islands. (And meanwhile Austria annexed Venice.)

Greek Rule, 1864-present.

On 5 June 1864 Britain ceded the Ionian Islands to Greece in order to help stabilise the new Danish royal dynasty there. The original modern Greek dynasty was Bavarian but was deposed in 1864. Greece then chose the British Prince Albert as its king, but the British government disapproved of the scheme.

George C Poulos

Executive Director, Australian Iconography Foundation
Senior Member, Flag Society of Australia
Member, Heraldry Australia Inc.
Vexillographer, Official Bondi Beach Flag.
Vexillographer, Hawkesbury Waratah Festival Flag.
Vexillographer, Karavitiko Symposium Flag.
Vexillographer, Australian Total Reconciliation Flag.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 09.04.2004

Antikythera mechanism - drawing of the mechanism in situ

Derek De Solla Price, 1959

From the evidence of the fragments one can get a good idea of the appearance of the original object. Consisting of a box with dials on the outside and a very complex assembly of gear wheels mounted within, it must have resembled a well- made 18ih-century clock. Doors hinged to the box served to protect the dials, and on all available surfaces of box, doors and dials there were long Greek inscriptions describing the operation and construction of the instrument. At least 20 gear wheels of the mechanism have been preserved, including a very sophisticated assembly of gears that were mounted eccentrically on a turntable and probably functioned as a sort of epicyclic or differential, gear-system.

For a broader introduction to the Antikyhera mechanism - see the entry in this section entitled simply - Antikythera mechanism.

History > Documents

submitted by George Poulos on 18.09.2009

Natural Springs

Getting to the Source of Springs

One of the most dynamic geological features of Kythera generally, and particularly the village of Karavas, is the large number of natural springs.

The three springs in central Karavas - at Keramari, Amir Ali, and Portakalia, run perpetually.

Under Modern Landscapes, Peter Trifyllis, has provided with a photograph of running spring water at the spring at Amir Ali.

Under Vintage Portraits/People - Panagiota Morfi, has provided us with a picture of the spring at Mitata - in this case a picture from a past era.

The water from those springs is exceptionally beautiful to drink. As my parents have been fond of telling me throughout my lifetime - "then vluffi" - it doesn't matter how much you drink, the water never makes you "feel full."

It is important to try to understand how these springs may have come into existence.

Kevin Sparkman of FloridaSprings Organisation has kindly given us permission to utilise his explanation as to how the abundant springs in Florida, USA have evolved. Many of the evolutionary principles outlined on the FloridaSprings website

will pertain to the evolution of the many springs on Kythera, and in Karavas.

Water Cycles Around

The journey of water begins in the sky, where the state's abundant rainfall recharges the Floridan aquifer, our underground water source. Read below to learn about the water cycle and how it contributes to spring formation.


Rainfall is a function of various atmospheric and physical factors, and the most important of these are gravity and humidity. As the tiny water droplets within a cloud merge together into larger, heavier drops, they eventually overwhelm the relative level of atmospheric humidity that keeps them airborne. Relative humidity is a measurement of the amount of water the air can hold at a given temperature. Scientists have recently determined that once these drops reach a diameter of twenty millimeters, rain will begin to fall. Every day, over 150 billion gallons of rain falls in Florida, more than any other state in the nation except Louisiana.

Evaporation and Condensation

Water's journey through the water cycle begins with a process called evaporation whereby water stored in surface bodies of water like lakes, rivers and the ocean is converted into water vapor by the heat of the sun. Convection then draws this warmer, wetter air upwards where it comes into contact with cooler, high atmospheric air and eventually condenses back into tiny water droplets. Collectively, these tiny droplets are called clouds.


In addition to evaporation, a significant percentage of the water is released into the atmosphere by trees and plants in a process called transpiration. In order to facilitate photosynthesis, plants absorb water from the soil through their roots, a process that can also clean water by filtering out nutrients and pollution. They then transpire this water back into the atmosphere through their leaves and stems. About 70 percent of all rainfall returns to the atmosphere in the form of evaporation and transpiration.


Rainfall that is not absorbed directly into the soil, through the roots and leaves of plants, or accumulated into existing bodies of water such as lakes or rivers is called surface, or stormwater runoff. In areas where the underlying geologic formation is impervious to water, as in the case of clay, runoff is a natural process, directing water in sheet flow, into lakes, rivers, wetlands, and the ocean. In Florida, where loose sandy soils and porous limestone bedrock are common, rainfall that reaches the surface of the earth usually soaks directly into the ground.


Rainfall seeps underground through a process called percolation, whereby water travels downwards through the tiny spaces between rocks and soil particles, and within the "Swiss cheese" structure of the limestone. The water eventually saturates the underlying limestone in much the same way water fills the tiny holes of a sponge. It is this process of percolation that allows Florida's abundant rainfall to replenish the immense volumes of water flowing from the springs.

Rain Falls Again

Though the first step of water's journey to the springs begins in the sky, the water cycle itself is a never-ending process, and no single step is more important than any other. Evaporation, transpiration, condensation, rainfall, run-off, and percolation all play a critical part in ensuring that water is consistently available for both natural processes and human use.

From Aquifer to Spring

The source of our drinking water and the crystal clear water in springs is the Floridan Aquifer, nature's underground water storage system. Read below to learn about our underground water cooler.

Recharge Basin

Water begins its journey underground to the aquifer by a process known as recharge whereby rainfall seeps underground to infiltrate the limestone below. The overall land surface area where water seeps underground and contributes rainwater to a specific spring is called a spring's recharge basin. North-central Florida, where spring upwellings are most abundant, contains hundreds of recharge basins. Given their complex three-dimensional structure, recharge basins are determined through extensive scientific studies of local subsurface geology and groundwater flow.


Percolation is the physical process by which rainwater falling within a given recharge basin slowly travels underground through the tiny spaces between rocks and soil particles. Florida's unconsolidated, sandy soils as well as the porous nature of the limestone aquifer itself provide the ideal conditions for unrestricted percolation. Yet, depending on the type of soil and the depth of the limestone aquifer, some areas allow water to percolate water underground faster than others, resulting in different recharge rates. Areas of high recharge occur in only 15 percent of the state, mostly in the sandy highlands of west and west-central Florida.


Speleogenesis is a big word that describes the formation of caves. In Florida, speleogenesis occurs underground through a simple chemical reaction. As rainwater falls through the atmosphere and percolates through the soil, it combines with carbon dioxide in the air and decaying vegetation to form a mild carbonic acid that slowly dissolves the limestone enlarging small cracks and pores. Over thousands of years, these small pores and cracks expand to become underground caves and caverns. Collectively, these interconnected caves are the pipes through which groundwater flows within the aquifer to the springs.

Groundwater Flow

Gravity is the major force in groundwater movement in the aquifer. Under natural conditions, groundwater moves "downhill" until it reaches the land surface at a spring or through a seep in a riverbed, lake or wetland. The speed with which water flows through the aquifer is also dependent upon the porosity and permeability of the limestone. In other words, water flows more quickly if the spaces or holes in the limestone are larger and if these spaces are closely connected to allow water to flow through.


Sinkholes are depressions in the land caused by dissolution of the limestone near the surface or the collapse of an underground cave. Once these "windows" to the aquifer are open, they may provide direct access to the conduits through which water flows from the recharge basin to the springs themselves. As a result, they are one of the most common points of entry for cave divers seeking to explore and study the underground aquifer.

Spring Formation

Springs form where groundwater is forced up and onto the surface through openings in the ground. This is caused by the differences in the slope or "hydraulic gradient" in the aquifer. As rain falls and percolates underground, it exerts pressure on the water already in the aquifer, forcing some to the surface through natural openings. The highest concentration of springs in Florida lies in the north-central part of the state where the aquifer is closest to the surface. Springs are classified or categorized based on the amount water discharge. The largest springs like Wakulla and Silver Springs are classified as "magnitude 1" springs which means they each discharges more than 65 million gallons of water a day - the equivalent of about 1.3 million bathtubs full!

Spring Flow

The volume of water flowing from a spring is dependent upon a variety of factors: the water pressure in the aquifer beneath it, the number of caves leading to the spring vent or opening, and the size of the vent itself. Florida's springs are the largest by volume in the world, giving birth to and supporting entire river eco-systems like the Suwannee and the Santa Fe. Collectively, Florida's springs discharge over 19 billion gallons of freshwater each day.

The Journey of Water

Getting to the Source of Springs

which has been replicated as Text Only in this entry,

can be viewed as an interactive display at

The interactive presentation requires Macromedia's Flash 5 player or newer for your web browser. If you do not have the Flash player, you can click on the entry at the FloridaSprings website to download it.

History > Documents

submitted by James Gavriles on 08.04.2004

Easter 1938 menu at the Atlas Cafe Highland Park, Michigan

A sample of the Easter menu at my Father's restaurant ,the Atlas Cafe, Highland Park, Michigan. 1938.
Some of the prices are un believable.

History > Documents

submitted by Alexandra Ermolaeff on 05.01.2004

Canberra Café Card

This business card was given to Ross (Spiros) Tzannes in 1997 by an elderly Kytherian man who knew Ross’s father. The card had originally been given to the man by Ross’s father Stratis Tzannes in the 1930’s. Stratis was a partner in the Canberra Café - an oyster bar at 132 Oxford Street in Darlinghurst, Sydney. He wrote his name on the back of the card in pencil when he gave the card to the man.

Family name: Tzannes
Village of origin: Livadi
Document description: Canberra Cafe card
Date: Circa 1930’s

History > Documents

submitted by Alexandra Ermolaeff on 02.12.2003

Dimitrios Aroney's passport, 1916.

Dimitrios Aroney's passport issued by the Greek Consulate of Sydney in 1916. This passport enabled him to travel from Australia to the USA.

Family name: Aroney
Village of origin: Aroniathika
Document dated: 1916

History > Documents

submitted by Site Administrator on 10.09.2003

Kytherian Society (USA) Panayiri Invitation


History > Documents

submitted by Site Administrator on 31.08.2003

Logo: Kytherian Association of New York

Many thanks to Peter Vanges and the Kytherian Association of Australia for their kind permission to reproduce this logo from Kythera, a History (1993), a hard cover book which is still available from the Association. For information about how to purchase the book, please see the Bibliography category under "Culture".

History > Documents

submitted by Site Administrator on 31.08.2003

Administrative Circular 1797

Many thanks to Peter Vanges and the Kytherian Association of Australia for their kind permission to reproduce this document from Kythera, a History (1993), a hard cover book which is still available from the Association. For information about ordering the book, please see the Bibliography category under "Culture".

History > Documents

submitted by Alexandra Ermolaeff on 14.07.2003

Andonis Pentopoulos' steamship ticket to Australia (1928)

At sixteen years of age Andonis Pentopoulos left Kythera and migrated to Australia. He had hardly ever even been outside of his village when he set out on his first journey abroad.

Andonis had been sponsored by his uncles Theodore and Nikolas Marcellos, who were already living in Australia. They loaned him the money for his passage and guaranteed him three years work in their restaurant and bakery in Griffith, N.S.W.

It took him three years to pay off his ticket, and although Andonis would never return to Greece, he always kept the original steamship ticket he purchased for the journey.

This is a copy of the original ticket. It is a third class passengers' contract ticket purchased in Port Said from the Orient Line of Royal Mail Steamships. The ticket cost 38 pounds and indicates that Andonis embarked the Steamship Orvieto for Australia on the twelfth day of September in 1928.

History > Documents

submitted by James Prineas on 28.06.2003

Logo Olympia Cafe

This is the envelope with logo from my grandfather Dimitri Prineas' (Dimitrelou) café in Holbrook. He ran it until 1949, when, on the night of their departure party, the day before he and his family were to move to Sydney, he died of a heart attack.

History > Documents

submitted by Site Administrator on 15.06.2003

Kathimerini (English) May 2002

An article about "Kythera Photographic Encounters", a three-day photographic event in October 2002 on Kythera, organised by John Stathos.

History > Documents

submitted by Site Administrator on 15.06.2003

History > Documents

submitted by Site Administrator on 15.06.2003

History > Documents

submitted by Site Administrator on 15.06.2003